The channel model is by far the most computing intensive part of the link level simulations of multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) fifth-generation new radio (5G NR) communication systems. Simulation effort further increases when using more realistic geometry-based channel models, such as the three-dimensional spatial channel model (3D-SCM). Channel emulation is used for functional and performance verification of such models in the network planning phase. These models use multiple finite impulse response (FIR) filters and have a very high degree of parallelism which can be exploited for accelerated execution on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) platforms. This paper proposes an efficient re-configurable implementation of the 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP) 3D-SCM on FPGAs using a design flow based on high-level synthesis (HLS). It studies the effect of various HLS optimization techniques on the total latency and hardware resource utilization on Xilinx Alveo U280 and Intel Arria 10GX 1150 high-performance FPGAs, using in both cases the commercial HLS tools of the producer. The channel model accuracy is preserved using double precision floating point arithmetic. This work analyzes in detail the effort to target the FPGA platforms using HLS tools, both in terms of common parallelization effort (shared by both FPGAs), and in terms of platform-specific effort, different for Xilinx and Intel FPGAs. Compared to the baseline general-purpose central processing unit (CPU) implementation, the achieved speedups are 65X and 95X using the Xilinx UltraScale+ and Intel Arria FPGA platform respectively, when using a Double Data Rate (DDR) memory interface. The FPGA-based designs also achieved ~3X better performance compared to a similar technology node NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1070 GPU, while consuming ~4X less energy. The FPGA implementation speedup improves up to 173X over the CPU baseline when using the Xilinx UltraRAM (URAM) and High-Bandwidth Memory (HBM) resources, also achieving 6X lower latency and 12X lower energy consumption than the GPU implementation.

FPGA Acceleration of 3GPP Channel Model Emulator for 5G New Radio / Shah, NASIR ALI; Lavagno, Luciano; Lazarescu, Mihai T.; Quasso, Roberto; Scarpina, Salvatore. - In: IEEE ACCESS. - ISSN 2169-3536. - ELETTRONICO. - 10:(2022), pp. 119386-119401. [10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3221124]

FPGA Acceleration of 3GPP Channel Model Emulator for 5G New Radio

Nasir Ali Shah;Luciano Lavagno;Mihai T. Lazarescu;Salvatore Scarpina
2022

Abstract

The channel model is by far the most computing intensive part of the link level simulations of multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) fifth-generation new radio (5G NR) communication systems. Simulation effort further increases when using more realistic geometry-based channel models, such as the three-dimensional spatial channel model (3D-SCM). Channel emulation is used for functional and performance verification of such models in the network planning phase. These models use multiple finite impulse response (FIR) filters and have a very high degree of parallelism which can be exploited for accelerated execution on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) platforms. This paper proposes an efficient re-configurable implementation of the 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP) 3D-SCM on FPGAs using a design flow based on high-level synthesis (HLS). It studies the effect of various HLS optimization techniques on the total latency and hardware resource utilization on Xilinx Alveo U280 and Intel Arria 10GX 1150 high-performance FPGAs, using in both cases the commercial HLS tools of the producer. The channel model accuracy is preserved using double precision floating point arithmetic. This work analyzes in detail the effort to target the FPGA platforms using HLS tools, both in terms of common parallelization effort (shared by both FPGAs), and in terms of platform-specific effort, different for Xilinx and Intel FPGAs. Compared to the baseline general-purpose central processing unit (CPU) implementation, the achieved speedups are 65X and 95X using the Xilinx UltraScale+ and Intel Arria FPGA platform respectively, when using a Double Data Rate (DDR) memory interface. The FPGA-based designs also achieved ~3X better performance compared to a similar technology node NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1070 GPU, while consuming ~4X less energy. The FPGA implementation speedup improves up to 173X over the CPU baseline when using the Xilinx UltraRAM (URAM) and High-Bandwidth Memory (HBM) resources, also achieving 6X lower latency and 12X lower energy consumption than the GPU implementation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11583/2973188