Herein, we propose a hassle-free approach to prepare SnO2/C composite using a simple, fully sustainable, and economic synthesis process, in which tin oxide is in situ nucleated on commercial carbon black C-NERGYTM Super C45 (Imerys Graphite & Carbon) in form of homogenously distributed nanoparticles. The synthesis is carried out by wet impregnation without any acid treatment or high temperature process. We focused on the presence of the existing oxygen species on the carbon surface that are accessible for tin and promote Sn–O–C interactions, suggesting synergies between the two components, with an active role of the carbon support in the SnO2 conversion reaction. On one hand, in Li-ion technology, development of high-performance SnO2 anodes is hampered by its peculiar electrochemical behavior, characterized by two processes: conversion and alloying reactions. The conversion reaction being irreversible leads to specific capacities lower than theoretical, however rational design of nanosized SnO2 can mitigate this issue, though SnO2 low conductivity and electrode pulverization justify the need of carbon matrices. Some carbon structures proved to be strongly effective at laboratory-scale, but most are too expensive or complicated to obtain for scaling-up. Presence of oxygen species on C45 surface, accessible to tin, prevent fast formation of Li2O, allowing to achieve high capacity and extreme electrode stability. The assembled cells with SnO2 /C45 exhibit for more than 400 cycles the reversible capacity of 560 mA h g−1 per pure SnO2 (after subtracting C45 contribution) at 1C, demonstrating prolonged cycling operation thus providing an interesting opportunity for scalable production of stable and high-capacity battery anodes alternatively to graphite [1]. On the other hand, developing efficient and low cost electrocatalysts for ORR is fundamental to bring the Li-O2 technology closer to practical applications. The obtained composite material shows an optimal ORR activity with a final reduction mechanism following the 4 electrons pathway. This is confirmed in Li-O2 cells, indeed compared to pure C45 air-cathodes, the composite cathodes lead to the formation of much more reversible film-like discharge products, allowing for reduced overvoltage and therefore improved cycling performances both at the high current density of 0.5 mA cm-2 with more than 70 cycles and in prolonged discharge/charge conditions with over 1250 h of operation at the fixed capacity of 2.5 mAh cm-2 [2]. Considering the fast and inexpensive method used to prepare SnO2/C45, these results, in terms of reversible capacities and long cycling stability, are competitive among others obtained for SnO2-based materials synthetized by other methods such as hydrothermal, sonochemical, solvothermal, etc. All these considerations make the synthetic route reported a suitable and interesting approach for large scale production. References 1. D.

Ultrasmall SnO2 directly grown on commercial carbon black: a versatile composite material for Li-based energy storage / Versaci, Daniele; Amici, JULIA GINETTE NICOLE; Dessantis, Davide; Jesus Aguirre, María; Ronchetti, S.; Onida, B.; Francia, Carlotta; Bodoardo, Silvia. - ELETTRONICO. - (2022), pp. 1-1. ((Intervento presentato al convegno Advanced Batteries, Accumulators and Fuel Cells [ABAF 23] tenutosi a Brno nel 21 - 24 agosto 2022.

Ultrasmall SnO2 directly grown on commercial carbon black: a versatile composite material for Li-based energy storage

Daniele Versaci;Julia Amici;Davide Dessantis;S. Ronchetti;B. Onida;Carlotta Francia;Silvia Bodoardo
2022

Abstract

Herein, we propose a hassle-free approach to prepare SnO2/C composite using a simple, fully sustainable, and economic synthesis process, in which tin oxide is in situ nucleated on commercial carbon black C-NERGYTM Super C45 (Imerys Graphite & Carbon) in form of homogenously distributed nanoparticles. The synthesis is carried out by wet impregnation without any acid treatment or high temperature process. We focused on the presence of the existing oxygen species on the carbon surface that are accessible for tin and promote Sn–O–C interactions, suggesting synergies between the two components, with an active role of the carbon support in the SnO2 conversion reaction. On one hand, in Li-ion technology, development of high-performance SnO2 anodes is hampered by its peculiar electrochemical behavior, characterized by two processes: conversion and alloying reactions. The conversion reaction being irreversible leads to specific capacities lower than theoretical, however rational design of nanosized SnO2 can mitigate this issue, though SnO2 low conductivity and electrode pulverization justify the need of carbon matrices. Some carbon structures proved to be strongly effective at laboratory-scale, but most are too expensive or complicated to obtain for scaling-up. Presence of oxygen species on C45 surface, accessible to tin, prevent fast formation of Li2O, allowing to achieve high capacity and extreme electrode stability. The assembled cells with SnO2 /C45 exhibit for more than 400 cycles the reversible capacity of 560 mA h g−1 per pure SnO2 (after subtracting C45 contribution) at 1C, demonstrating prolonged cycling operation thus providing an interesting opportunity for scalable production of stable and high-capacity battery anodes alternatively to graphite [1]. On the other hand, developing efficient and low cost electrocatalysts for ORR is fundamental to bring the Li-O2 technology closer to practical applications. The obtained composite material shows an optimal ORR activity with a final reduction mechanism following the 4 electrons pathway. This is confirmed in Li-O2 cells, indeed compared to pure C45 air-cathodes, the composite cathodes lead to the formation of much more reversible film-like discharge products, allowing for reduced overvoltage and therefore improved cycling performances both at the high current density of 0.5 mA cm-2 with more than 70 cycles and in prolonged discharge/charge conditions with over 1250 h of operation at the fixed capacity of 2.5 mAh cm-2 [2]. Considering the fast and inexpensive method used to prepare SnO2/C45, these results, in terms of reversible capacities and long cycling stability, are competitive among others obtained for SnO2-based materials synthetized by other methods such as hydrothermal, sonochemical, solvothermal, etc. All these considerations make the synthetic route reported a suitable and interesting approach for large scale production. References 1. D.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11583/2971454