Following a waste-to-wealth approach, humic acid (HA) was exploited as a flame retardant additive. The effect of its addition alone and in combination with urea (UR) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) on the thermal, fire, and mechanical performances of a bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (DGEBA)-based epoxy resin modified with (3-aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (AP) and cured with aliphatic isophoronediamine (IDA) has been investigated. Unlike in previous studies, a UL 94-V-0 classification was achieved for epoxy resin containing HA at 6 wt % and APP at only 1 wt % phosphorus (P) loading. The presence of silicon-modified epoxy chains ameliorated the distribution of the biowaste within the resin, and the addition of HA alone avoided melt dripping. Besides, APP and UR promoted a remarkable reduction (up to 52%) of the peak heat release rate (pHRR) values and a significant delay (up to 21%) of the time to ignition in cone calorimetry tests, and hence an increase (up to 1.8 min) of the time to flashover, without any detrimental effect on the overall mechanical behavior. The evolved gas, thermal, and fire analysis was used to propose the combined mode of action of HA, UR, APP, and silicon in the fire performance improvement of the hybrid epoxy system.

Detailed thermal, fire, and mechanical study of silicon-modified epoxy resin containing humic acid and other additives / Venezia, Virginia; Matta, Samuele; Lehner, Sandro; Vitiello, Giuseppe; Costantini, Aniello; Gaan, Sabyasachi; Malucelli, Giulio; Branda, Francesco; Luciani, Giuseppina; Bifulco, Aurelio. - In: ACS APPLIED POLYMER MATERIALS. - ISSN 2637-6105. - ELETTRONICO. - 3:11(2021), pp. 5969-5981. [10.1021/acsapm.1c01240]

Detailed thermal, fire, and mechanical study of silicon-modified epoxy resin containing humic acid and other additives

Samuele Matta;Giulio Malucelli;
2021

Abstract

Following a waste-to-wealth approach, humic acid (HA) was exploited as a flame retardant additive. The effect of its addition alone and in combination with urea (UR) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) on the thermal, fire, and mechanical performances of a bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (DGEBA)-based epoxy resin modified with (3-aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (AP) and cured with aliphatic isophoronediamine (IDA) has been investigated. Unlike in previous studies, a UL 94-V-0 classification was achieved for epoxy resin containing HA at 6 wt % and APP at only 1 wt % phosphorus (P) loading. The presence of silicon-modified epoxy chains ameliorated the distribution of the biowaste within the resin, and the addition of HA alone avoided melt dripping. Besides, APP and UR promoted a remarkable reduction (up to 52%) of the peak heat release rate (pHRR) values and a significant delay (up to 21%) of the time to ignition in cone calorimetry tests, and hence an increase (up to 1.8 min) of the time to flashover, without any detrimental effect on the overall mechanical behavior. The evolved gas, thermal, and fire analysis was used to propose the combined mode of action of HA, UR, APP, and silicon in the fire performance improvement of the hybrid epoxy system.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11583/2935733