Ontogenesis is the development of an organism from its earliest stage to maturity, including homeostasis maintenance throughout adulthood despite environmental perturbations. Almost all cells of a multicellular organism share the same genomic information. Nevertheless, phenotypic diversity and complex supra-cellular architectures emerge at every level, starting from tissues and organs. This is possible thanks to a robust and dynamic interplay of regulative mechanisms. To study ontogenesis, it is necessary to consider different levels of regulation, both genetic and epigenetic. Each cell undergoes a specific path across a landscape of possible regulative states affecting both its structure and its functions during development. This paper proposes using the Nets-Within-Nets formalism, which combines Petri Nets’ simplicity with the capability to represent and simulate the interplay between different layers of regulation connected by non-trivial and context-dependent hierarchical relations. In particular, this work introduces a modeling strategy based on Nets-Within-Nets that can model several critical processes involved in ontogenesis. Moreover, it presents a case study focusing on the first phase of Vulval Precursor Cells specification in C. Elegans. The case study shows that the proposed model can simulate the emergent morphogenetic pattern corresponding to the observed developmental outcome of that phase, in both the physiological case and different mutations. The model presented in the results section is available online at https://github.com/sysbio-polito/NWN_CElegans_VPC_model/

Nets-within-nets for modeling emergent patterns in ontogenetic processes / Bardini, Roberta; Benso, Alfredo; Politano, Gianfranco; Di Carlo, Stefano. - In: COMPUTATIONAL AND STRUCTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY JOURNAL. - ISSN 2001-0370. - ELETTRONICO. - 19:(2021), pp. 5701-5721. [10.1016/j.csbj.2021.10.008]

Nets-within-nets for modeling emergent patterns in ontogenetic processes

Bardini, Roberta;Benso, Alfredo;Politano, Gianfranco;Di Carlo, Stefano
2021

Abstract

Ontogenesis is the development of an organism from its earliest stage to maturity, including homeostasis maintenance throughout adulthood despite environmental perturbations. Almost all cells of a multicellular organism share the same genomic information. Nevertheless, phenotypic diversity and complex supra-cellular architectures emerge at every level, starting from tissues and organs. This is possible thanks to a robust and dynamic interplay of regulative mechanisms. To study ontogenesis, it is necessary to consider different levels of regulation, both genetic and epigenetic. Each cell undergoes a specific path across a landscape of possible regulative states affecting both its structure and its functions during development. This paper proposes using the Nets-Within-Nets formalism, which combines Petri Nets’ simplicity with the capability to represent and simulate the interplay between different layers of regulation connected by non-trivial and context-dependent hierarchical relations. In particular, this work introduces a modeling strategy based on Nets-Within-Nets that can model several critical processes involved in ontogenesis. Moreover, it presents a case study focusing on the first phase of Vulval Precursor Cells specification in C. Elegans. The case study shows that the proposed model can simulate the emergent morphogenetic pattern corresponding to the observed developmental outcome of that phase, in both the physiological case and different mutations. The model presented in the results section is available online at https://github.com/sysbio-polito/NWN_CElegans_VPC_model/
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11583/2930554