Ever since transistor cost stopped decreasing, customized programmable platforms, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), became a major way to improve software execution performance and energy consumption. While software developers can use high-level synthesis (HLS) to speed up register-transfer level (RTL) code generation from C++ or OpenCL source code, placement and routing issues, such as congestion, can still prevent achieving an FPGA programming bitstream or dramatically reduce the FPGA implementation performance. Congestion reports from physical design tools refer to thousands of RTL signal names instead of developer-accessible identifiers and statements, considerably complicating the developer understanding and resolution of the issues at the source level. We propose a high-level back-annotation flow that summarizes the routing congestion issues at the source level by analyzing the reports from the FPGA physical design tools and the internal debugging files of the HLS tools. Our flow describes congestion using comments back-annotated on the source code and identifies if the congestion causes are the on-chip memories or the DSP units (multipliers/adders), which are the shared resources very often associated with routing problems on FPGAs. We demonstrate on realistic large designs how the information provided by our flow helps to quickly spot congestion causes at the source level and to solve them using appropriate HLS directives.
High-Level Annotation of Routing Congestion for Xilinx Vivado HLS Designs / Bin Tariq, Osama; Shan, Junnan; Floros, Georgios; Sotiriou, Christos P.; Casu, Mario R.; Lazarescu, Mihai Teodor; Lavagno, Luciano. - In: IEEE ACCESS. - ISSN 2169-3536. - ELETTRONICO. - 9(2021), pp. 54286-54297. [10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3067453]
|Titolo:||High-Level Annotation of Routing Congestion for Xilinx Vivado HLS Designs|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2021|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3067453|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|