Selective catalytic reduction (SCR), based on the injection of urea-water-solution (UWS), is one of the prevailing and more effective approaches to reduce NOx emissions in diesel engines. To improve the performance and durability of the system, it is crucial to develop reliable simulation tools able to correctly describe not only the urea conversion into ammonia and the mixing with exhaust gases but also the possible formation of solid deposits along with the engine's exhaust line. In the present paper, two different exhaust systems for off-road applications are analyzed, both of them consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) followed by a diesel particulate filter (DPF), a UWS injection and a mixing device, and an SCR catalyst. Two alternative UWS mixing subsystems are evaluated, including a newly developed design. A 3D-CFD numerical analysis is carried out to assess the performance of both systems in terms of pressure drop, UWS spray, and liquid film development, in addition to flow velocities and species concentration uniformities at SCR catalyst inlet. A detailed analysis of droplet impingement on walls and liquid film development is enabled, thanks to a conjugate heat transfer (CHT) approach. Moreover, a deposit risk index is used to identify the areas of the systems where urea deposit formation is expected. Eventually, numerical results are compared with experiments on one operating condition chosen as the most challenging in terms of exhaust temperature and flow rate, both in terms of systems NOx conversion efficiency and deposit formation, showing a satisfactory agreement, thus paving the way to use the proposed synergetic numerical and experimental approach to further optimize the design and the system's performance.

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of an Innovative Mixer Geometry for Urea Injection in {SCR} Applications / Millo, Federico; Sapio, Francesco; PEIRETTI PARADISI, Benedetta; Bianco, Andrea; Postrioti, Lucio; Buitoni, Giacomo; Tabarrini, Marco; Robino, Cristina. - In: EMISSION CONTROL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. - ISSN 2199-3637. - 8:1-2(2022), pp. 78-95. [10.1007/s40825-022-00207-8]

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of an Innovative Mixer Geometry for Urea Injection in {SCR} Applications

Federico Millo;Francesco Sapio;Benedetta Peiretti Paradisi;Lucio Postrioti;
2022

Abstract

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR), based on the injection of urea-water-solution (UWS), is one of the prevailing and more effective approaches to reduce NOx emissions in diesel engines. To improve the performance and durability of the system, it is crucial to develop reliable simulation tools able to correctly describe not only the urea conversion into ammonia and the mixing with exhaust gases but also the possible formation of solid deposits along with the engine's exhaust line. In the present paper, two different exhaust systems for off-road applications are analyzed, both of them consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) followed by a diesel particulate filter (DPF), a UWS injection and a mixing device, and an SCR catalyst. Two alternative UWS mixing subsystems are evaluated, including a newly developed design. A 3D-CFD numerical analysis is carried out to assess the performance of both systems in terms of pressure drop, UWS spray, and liquid film development, in addition to flow velocities and species concentration uniformities at SCR catalyst inlet. A detailed analysis of droplet impingement on walls and liquid film development is enabled, thanks to a conjugate heat transfer (CHT) approach. Moreover, a deposit risk index is used to identify the areas of the systems where urea deposit formation is expected. Eventually, numerical results are compared with experiments on one operating condition chosen as the most challenging in terms of exhaust temperature and flow rate, both in terms of systems NOx conversion efficiency and deposit formation, showing a satisfactory agreement, thus paving the way to use the proposed synergetic numerical and experimental approach to further optimize the design and the system's performance.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11583/2982482
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