Freezing is widely used during the manufacturing process of protein-based therapeutics, but it may result in an undesired loss of biological activity. Many variables come into play during freezing that could adversely affect protein stability, creating a complex landscape of interrelated effects. The current approach to the selection of freezing conditions is however nonsystematic, resulting in poor process control. Here we show how mathematical models, and a design space approach can guide the selection of the optimal freezing protocol, focusing on protein stability. Two opposite scenarios are identified, suggesting that the ice-water interface is the dominant cause of denaturation for proteins with high bulk stability, while the duration of the freezing process itself is the key parameter to be controlled for proteins that are susceptible to cold denaturation. Experimental data for lactate dehydrogenase and myoglobin as model proteins support the model results, with a slow freezing rate being optimal for lactate dehydrogenase and the opposite being true for myoglobin. A possible application of the calculated design space to the freezing and freeze-drying of biopharmaceuticals is finally described, and some considerations on process efficiency are discussed as well.
|Titolo:||Considerations on protein stability during freezing and its impact on the freeze-drying cycle: a design space approach|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.xphs.2019.10.022|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|