The shale gas flowback and produced water (FPW) from hydraulic fracturing in the Sichuan province of China has relatively low to moderate levels of total dissolved solids (<20 g/L) and organics (<50 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon). As such, a combined ultrafiltration (UF), reverse osmosis (RO) system can be successfully applied to desalinate this feed water with the goal of reuse. However, the concentration of influent organic matter and particulates in the UF and RO stage is high, and the overall ionic and organics composition is highly complex, so that the membrane processes do not perform well, also due to fouling. To ensure the long-term and efficient operation of the UF-RO stages, a combined pretreatment of the FPW with coagulation and adsorption was investigated. The effect of different parameters on the performance on the system was studied in detail. Overall, the coagulation-adsorption pre-treatment greatly reduced fouling of the membrane processes, thanks to the high removal rate of turbidity (98.8%) and dissolved organic carbon (86.3%). The adsorption of organic matter by powdered activated carbon was best described by the Freundlich equilibrium model, with a pseudo second-order model representing the adsorption kinetics. Also, the various ions had competitive removal rates during the adsorption step, a phenomenon reported for the first time for FPW treatment. Also, an optimal dose of activated carbon existed to maximize fouling reduction and effluent quality. The overall treatment system produced a high-quality water streams, suitable for reuse.
|Titolo:||Reuse of shale gas flowback and produced water: Effects of coagulation and adsorption on ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis combined process|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.365|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|