The present work shows a rational method for the development of the freezing step of a freeze-drying cycle. The current approach to the selection of freezing conditions is still empirical and nonsystematic, thus resulting in poor robustness of control strategy. The final aim of this work is to fill this gap, describing a rational procedure, based on mathematical modeling, for properly choosing the freezing conditions. Mechanistic models are used for the prediction of temperature profiles during freezing and dimension of ice crystals being formed. Mathematical description of the drying phase of freeze-drying is also coupled with the results obtained by freezing models, thus providing a comprehensive characterization of the lyophilization process. In this framework, deep understanding of the phenomena involved is required, and according to the Quality by Design approach, this knowledge can be used to build the design space. The step-by-step procedure for building the design space for freezing is thus described, and examples of applications are provided. The calculated design space is validated upon experimental data, and we show that it allows easy control of the freezing process and fast selection of appropriate operating conditions.
Application of the Quality by Design approach to the freezing step of freeze-drying: building the design space / Arsiccio, Andrea; Pisano, Roberto. - In: JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES. - ISSN 0022-3549. - STAMPA. - 107:6(2018), pp. 1586-1596.
|Titolo:||Application of the Quality by Design approach to the freezing step of freeze-drying: building the design space|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2018.02.003|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|