The authors review the physics of ultrafast dynamics in semiconductors and their heterostructures, including both the observed experimental phenomena and the theoretical description of the processes. These are probed by ultrafast optical excitation, generating nonequilibrium states that can be monitored by time-resolved spectroscopy. Light pulses create coherent superpositions of states, and the dynamics of the associated phase relationships can be directly investigated by means of many-pulse experiments. The commonly used experimental techniques are briefly reviewed. A variety of different phenomena can be described within a common theoretical framework based on the density-matrix formalism. The important interactions of the carriers included in the theoretical description are the phonon interactions, the interactions with classical and quantum light fields, and the Coulomb interaction among the carriers themselves. These interactions give rise to a strong interplay between phase coherence and relaxation, which strongly affects the non equilibrium dynamics. Based on the general theory, the authors review the physical phenomena in various semiconductor structures including superlattices, quantum wells, quantum wires, and bulk media. Particular results which have played a central role in understanding the microscopic origins of the relaxation processes are discussed in detail.
|Titolo:||Ultrafast phenomena in photoexcited semiconductors|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2002|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1103/RevModPhys.74.895|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|