Degenerately doped semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are of recent interest to the NC community due to their tunable localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in the near infrared (NIR). The high level of doping in such materials with carrier densities in the range of 10^21 cm^-3 3leads to degeneracy of the doping levels and intense plasmonic absorption in the NIR. The lower carrier density in degenerately doped semiconductor NCs compared to noble metals enables LSPR tuning over a wide spectral range, since even a minor change of the carrier density strongly affects the spectral position of the LSPR. Two classes of degenerate semiconductors are most relevant in this respect: impurity doped semiconductors, such as metal oxides, and vacancy doped semiconductors, such as copper chalcogenides. In the latter it is the density of copper vacancies that controls the carrier concentration, while in the former the introduction of impurity atoms adds carriers to the system. LSPR tuning in vacancy doped semiconductor NCs such as copper chalcogenides occurs by chemically controlling the copper vacancy density. This goes in hand with complex structural modifications of the copper chalcogenide crystal lattice. In contrast the LSPR of degenerately doped metal oxide NCs is modified by varying the doping concentration or by the choice of host and dopant atoms, but also through the addition of capacitive charge carriers to the conduction band of the metal oxide upon post-synthetic treatments, such as by electrochemical- or photodoping. The NIR LSPRs and the option of their spectral fine-tuning make accessible important new features, such as the controlled coupling of the LSPR to other physical signatures or the enhancement of optical signals in the NIR, sensing application by LSPR tracking, energy production from the NIR plasmon resonance or bio-medical applications in the biological window. In this review we highlight the recent advances in the synthesis of various different plasmonic semiconductor NCs with LSPRs covering the entire spectral range, from the mid- to the NIR. We focus on copper chalcogenide NCs and impurity doped metal oxide NCs as the most investigated alternatives to noble metals. We shed light on the structural changes upon LSPR tuning in vacancy doped copper chalcogenide NCs and deliver a picture for the fundamentally different mechanism of LSPR modification of impurity doped metal oxide NCs. We review on the peculiar optical properties of plasmonic degenerately doped NCs by highlighting the variety of different optical measurements and optical modeling approaches. These findings are merged in an exhaustive section on new and exciting applications based on the special characteristics that plasmonic semiconductor NCs bring along.

Plasmonic doped semiconductor nanocrystals: Properties, fabrication, applications and perspectives / Kriegel, Ilka; Scotognella, Francesco; Manna, Liberato. - In: PHYSICS REPORTS. - ISSN 0370-1573. - ELETTRONICO. - 674:(2017), pp. 1-52. [10.1016/j.physrep.2017.01.003]

Plasmonic doped semiconductor nanocrystals: Properties, fabrication, applications and perspectives

Scotognella, Francesco;
2017

Abstract

Degenerately doped semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are of recent interest to the NC community due to their tunable localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in the near infrared (NIR). The high level of doping in such materials with carrier densities in the range of 10^21 cm^-3 3leads to degeneracy of the doping levels and intense plasmonic absorption in the NIR. The lower carrier density in degenerately doped semiconductor NCs compared to noble metals enables LSPR tuning over a wide spectral range, since even a minor change of the carrier density strongly affects the spectral position of the LSPR. Two classes of degenerate semiconductors are most relevant in this respect: impurity doped semiconductors, such as metal oxides, and vacancy doped semiconductors, such as copper chalcogenides. In the latter it is the density of copper vacancies that controls the carrier concentration, while in the former the introduction of impurity atoms adds carriers to the system. LSPR tuning in vacancy doped semiconductor NCs such as copper chalcogenides occurs by chemically controlling the copper vacancy density. This goes in hand with complex structural modifications of the copper chalcogenide crystal lattice. In contrast the LSPR of degenerately doped metal oxide NCs is modified by varying the doping concentration or by the choice of host and dopant atoms, but also through the addition of capacitive charge carriers to the conduction band of the metal oxide upon post-synthetic treatments, such as by electrochemical- or photodoping. The NIR LSPRs and the option of their spectral fine-tuning make accessible important new features, such as the controlled coupling of the LSPR to other physical signatures or the enhancement of optical signals in the NIR, sensing application by LSPR tracking, energy production from the NIR plasmon resonance or bio-medical applications in the biological window. In this review we highlight the recent advances in the synthesis of various different plasmonic semiconductor NCs with LSPRs covering the entire spectral range, from the mid- to the NIR. We focus on copper chalcogenide NCs and impurity doped metal oxide NCs as the most investigated alternatives to noble metals. We shed light on the structural changes upon LSPR tuning in vacancy doped copper chalcogenide NCs and deliver a picture for the fundamentally different mechanism of LSPR modification of impurity doped metal oxide NCs. We review on the peculiar optical properties of plasmonic degenerately doped NCs by highlighting the variety of different optical measurements and optical modeling approaches. These findings are merged in an exhaustive section on new and exciting applications based on the special characteristics that plasmonic semiconductor NCs bring along.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Plasmonic Doped Semiconductor Nanocrystals.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: 1. Preprint / submitted version [pre- review]
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 3.29 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
3.29 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
1-s2.0-S0370157317300364-main.pdf

non disponibili

Tipologia: 2a Post-print versione editoriale / Version of Record
Licenza: Non Pubblico - Accesso privato/ristretto
Dimensione 9.66 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
9.66 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11583/2987015