Ground-based stations are one of many observing systems contributing to the generation of data to evaluate climate trends and variations locally and globally. Networks of stations are made of various numbers of observing sites, equipped with different typologies and varieties of instruments, differently managed and maintained. Among such networks a limited number of stations are required as a reference, to provide top quality traceable measurements and as the top level of a tiered approach; it is these stations which are here designated as Climatological Reference Stations (CRS). At present, there is no agreed definition of the key instrumental and technical features of a CRS, nor are there defined reference measurement procedures. This leads to the situation of a multitude of approaches among different National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs), research institutes and other agencies that reduces the comparability of results in space and in time. The lack of CRSs, moreover, is a major contributor to the huge efforts required to harmonize data and detect biases locally, regionally and globally, as in their absence there is a need to fall back on other stations which are more likely to have such biases. This article reports on the outcomes of the work of a group of experts, nominated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Climatology (CCI), tasked to promote a standardized and agreed concept about the definitions, specifications and technical characteristics of climate reference data and stations for ground-based networks, with the addition of a practical example of climatological reference station installed in the framework of an European funded project, with the purpose of comparing and confirming the prescribed characteristics and guidance, with respect to practical field use and available instrumentation. The adoption of a unique definition and prescription on the technical setup, measurement procedures and uncertainty evaluation will substantially progress towards a common approach in detecting climate trends. This will improve data comparability in space and time and allow a more robust understanding of climate evolution locally and globally.

Climatological reference stations: Definitions and requirements / Merlone, Andrea; Beges, Gaber; Bottacin, Alberto; Brunet, Manola; Gilabert, Alba; Groselj, Drago; Harper, Andrew; Hechler, Peer; Ivanov, Mirjana; Musacchio, Chiara; Trewin, Blair; Wright, William. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY. - ISSN 1097-0088. - ELETTRONICO. - (2024). [10.1002/joc.8406]

Climatological reference stations: Definitions and requirements

Bottacin, Alberto;
2024

Abstract

Ground-based stations are one of many observing systems contributing to the generation of data to evaluate climate trends and variations locally and globally. Networks of stations are made of various numbers of observing sites, equipped with different typologies and varieties of instruments, differently managed and maintained. Among such networks a limited number of stations are required as a reference, to provide top quality traceable measurements and as the top level of a tiered approach; it is these stations which are here designated as Climatological Reference Stations (CRS). At present, there is no agreed definition of the key instrumental and technical features of a CRS, nor are there defined reference measurement procedures. This leads to the situation of a multitude of approaches among different National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs), research institutes and other agencies that reduces the comparability of results in space and in time. The lack of CRSs, moreover, is a major contributor to the huge efforts required to harmonize data and detect biases locally, regionally and globally, as in their absence there is a need to fall back on other stations which are more likely to have such biases. This article reports on the outcomes of the work of a group of experts, nominated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Climatology (CCI), tasked to promote a standardized and agreed concept about the definitions, specifications and technical characteristics of climate reference data and stations for ground-based networks, with the addition of a practical example of climatological reference station installed in the framework of an European funded project, with the purpose of comparing and confirming the prescribed characteristics and guidance, with respect to practical field use and available instrumentation. The adoption of a unique definition and prescription on the technical setup, measurement procedures and uncertainty evaluation will substantially progress towards a common approach in detecting climate trends. This will improve data comparability in space and time and allow a more robust understanding of climate evolution locally and globally.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11583/2986577