Hemodynamics interacts with the cellular components of human vessels, influencing function and healthy status. Locally acting hemodynamic forces have been associated—by a steadily increasing amount of scientific evidence—with nucleation and evolution of atherosclerotic plaques in several vascular regions, resulting in the formulation of the ‘hemodynamic risk hypothesis’ of the atherogenesis. At the level of coronary arteries, however, the complexity of both anatomy and physiology made the study of this vascular region particularly difficult for researchers. Developments in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have recently allowed an accurate modelling of the intracoronary hemodynamics, thus offering physicians a unique tool for the investigation of this crucial human system by means of advanced mathematical simulations. The present review of CFD applications in coronary artery disease was set to concisely offer the medical reader the theoretical foundations of quantitative intravascular hemodynamics—reasoned schematically in the text in its basic (i.e., pressure and velocity) and derived quantities (e.g., fractional flow reserve, wall shear stress and helicity)—along with its current implications in clinical research. Moreover, attention was paid in classifying computational modelling derived from invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities with unbiased remarks on the advantages and limitations of each procedure. Finally, an extensive description—aided by explanatory figures and cross references to recent clinical findings—was presented on the role of near-wall hemodynamics, in terms of shear stress, and of intravascular flow complexity, in terms of helical flow.

Current and Future Applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Coronary Artery Disease / Candreva, Alessandro; De Nisco, Giuseppe; Lodi Rizzini, Maurizio; D’Ascenzo, Fabrizio; De Ferrari, Gaetano Maria; Gallo, Diego; Morbiducci, Umberto; Chiastra, Claudio. - In: REVIEWS IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE. - ISSN 1530-6550. - 23:11(2022), p. 377. [10.31083/j.rcm2311377]

Current and Future Applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Coronary Artery Disease

Candreva, Alessandro;De Nisco, Giuseppe;Lodi Rizzini, Maurizio;Gallo, Diego;Morbiducci, Umberto;Chiastra, Claudio
2022

Abstract

Hemodynamics interacts with the cellular components of human vessels, influencing function and healthy status. Locally acting hemodynamic forces have been associated—by a steadily increasing amount of scientific evidence—with nucleation and evolution of atherosclerotic plaques in several vascular regions, resulting in the formulation of the ‘hemodynamic risk hypothesis’ of the atherogenesis. At the level of coronary arteries, however, the complexity of both anatomy and physiology made the study of this vascular region particularly difficult for researchers. Developments in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have recently allowed an accurate modelling of the intracoronary hemodynamics, thus offering physicians a unique tool for the investigation of this crucial human system by means of advanced mathematical simulations. The present review of CFD applications in coronary artery disease was set to concisely offer the medical reader the theoretical foundations of quantitative intravascular hemodynamics—reasoned schematically in the text in its basic (i.e., pressure and velocity) and derived quantities (e.g., fractional flow reserve, wall shear stress and helicity)—along with its current implications in clinical research. Moreover, attention was paid in classifying computational modelling derived from invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities with unbiased remarks on the advantages and limitations of each procedure. Finally, an extensive description—aided by explanatory figures and cross references to recent clinical findings—was presented on the role of near-wall hemodynamics, in terms of shear stress, and of intravascular flow complexity, in terms of helical flow.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11583/2972979
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