Lanthanum and cobalt are Critical Raw Materials and components of Solid Oxide Cells— SOCs electrodes. This review analyses lanthanum and cobalt leaching from waste materials (e-waste, batteries, spent catalysts), aiming to provide a starting point for SOC recycling, not yet investigated. The literature was surveyed with a specific interest for leaching, the first phase of hydrometallurgy recycling. Most references (86%) were published after 2012, with an interest higher (85%) for cobalt. Inorganic acids were the prevailing (>80%) leaching agents, particularly for lanthanum, while leaching processes using organic acids mostly involved cobalt. The experimental conditions adopted more diluted organic acids (median 0.55Mfor lanthanum and 1.4Mfor cobalt) compared to inorganic acids (median value 2 M for both metals). Organic acids required a higher solid to liquid ratio (200 g/L), compared to inorganic ones (100 g/L) to solubilize lanthanum, while the opposite happened for cobalt (20 vs. 50 g/L). The process temperature didn’t change considerably with the solvent (45–75  C for lanthanum, and 75–88  C for cobalt). The contact time was higher for lanthanum than for cobalt (median 3–4 h vs. 75–85 min). Specific recycling processes are crucial to support SOCs value chain in Europe, and this review can help define the existing challenges and future perspectives.

Analysis of Lanthanum and Cobalt Leaching Aimed at Effective Recycling Strategies of Solid Oxide Cells / Benedetto Mas, Alice; Fiore, Silvia; Fiorilli, Sonia; Smeacetto, Federico; Santarelli, Massimo; Schiavi, Ilaria. - In: SUSTAINABILITY. - ISSN 2071-1050. - ELETTRONICO. - 14:6(2022), p. 3335. [10.3390/su14063335]

Analysis of Lanthanum and Cobalt Leaching Aimed at Effective Recycling Strategies of Solid Oxide Cells

Benedetto Mas, Alice;Fiore, Silvia;Fiorilli, Sonia;Smeacetto, Federico;Santarelli, Massimo;
2022

Abstract

Lanthanum and cobalt are Critical Raw Materials and components of Solid Oxide Cells— SOCs electrodes. This review analyses lanthanum and cobalt leaching from waste materials (e-waste, batteries, spent catalysts), aiming to provide a starting point for SOC recycling, not yet investigated. The literature was surveyed with a specific interest for leaching, the first phase of hydrometallurgy recycling. Most references (86%) were published after 2012, with an interest higher (85%) for cobalt. Inorganic acids were the prevailing (>80%) leaching agents, particularly for lanthanum, while leaching processes using organic acids mostly involved cobalt. The experimental conditions adopted more diluted organic acids (median 0.55Mfor lanthanum and 1.4Mfor cobalt) compared to inorganic acids (median value 2 M for both metals). Organic acids required a higher solid to liquid ratio (200 g/L), compared to inorganic ones (100 g/L) to solubilize lanthanum, while the opposite happened for cobalt (20 vs. 50 g/L). The process temperature didn’t change considerably with the solvent (45–75  C for lanthanum, and 75–88  C for cobalt). The contact time was higher for lanthanum than for cobalt (median 3–4 h vs. 75–85 min). Specific recycling processes are crucial to support SOCs value chain in Europe, and this review can help define the existing challenges and future perspectives.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11583/2958349