The online estimation of battery state of health (SOH) is crucial to ensure the reliability of the energy supply in electric and hybrid vehicles. An approach for enhancing the generalization of SOH estimation using a parallel layer extreme learning machine (PL-ELM) algorithm is analyzed in this paper. The deterministic and stable PL-ELM model is designed to overcome the drift problem that is associated with some conventional machine learning algorithms; hence, extending the application of a single SOH estimation model over a large set of batteries of the same type. The PL-ELM model was trained with selected features that characterize the SOH. These features are acquired as the discrete variation of indicator variables including voltage, state of charge (SOC), and energy releasable by the battery. The model training was performed with an experimental battery dataset collected at room temperature under a constant current load condition at discharge phases. Model validation was performed with a dataset of other batteries of the same type that were aged under a constant load condition. An optimum performance with low error variance was obtained from the model result. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the validated model varies from 0.064% to 0.473%, and the mean absolute error (MAE) error from 0.034% to 0.355% for the battery sets tested. On the basis of performance, the model was compared with a deterministic extreme learning machine (ELM) and an incremental capacity analysis (ICA)-based scheme from the literature. The algorithm was tested on a Texas F28379D microcontroller unit (MCU) board with an average execution speed of 93 µs in real time, and 0.9305% CPU occupation. These results suggest that the model is suitable for online applications.

Battery state of health estimation with improved generalization using parallel layer extreme learning machine / Ezemobi, E.; Tonoli, A.; Silvagni, M.. - In: ENERGIES. - ISSN 1996-1073. - ELETTRONICO. - 14:8(2021), p. 2243. [10.3390/en14082243]

Battery state of health estimation with improved generalization using parallel layer extreme learning machine

Ezemobi E.;Tonoli A.;Silvagni M.
2021

Abstract

The online estimation of battery state of health (SOH) is crucial to ensure the reliability of the energy supply in electric and hybrid vehicles. An approach for enhancing the generalization of SOH estimation using a parallel layer extreme learning machine (PL-ELM) algorithm is analyzed in this paper. The deterministic and stable PL-ELM model is designed to overcome the drift problem that is associated with some conventional machine learning algorithms; hence, extending the application of a single SOH estimation model over a large set of batteries of the same type. The PL-ELM model was trained with selected features that characterize the SOH. These features are acquired as the discrete variation of indicator variables including voltage, state of charge (SOC), and energy releasable by the battery. The model training was performed with an experimental battery dataset collected at room temperature under a constant current load condition at discharge phases. Model validation was performed with a dataset of other batteries of the same type that were aged under a constant load condition. An optimum performance with low error variance was obtained from the model result. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the validated model varies from 0.064% to 0.473%, and the mean absolute error (MAE) error from 0.034% to 0.355% for the battery sets tested. On the basis of performance, the model was compared with a deterministic extreme learning machine (ELM) and an incremental capacity analysis (ICA)-based scheme from the literature. The algorithm was tested on a Texas F28379D microcontroller unit (MCU) board with an average execution speed of 93 µs in real time, and 0.9305% CPU occupation. These results suggest that the model is suitable for online applications.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11583/2947894