Demand Response (DR) programs represent an effective way to optimally manage building energy demand while increasing Renewable Energy Sources (RES) integration and grid reliability, helping the decarbonization of the electricity sector. To fully exploit such opportunities, buildings are required to become sources of energy flexibility, adapting their energy demand to meet specific grid requirements. However, in most cases, the energy flexibility of a single building is typically too small to be exploited in the flexibility market, highlighting the necessity to perform analysis at a multiple-building scale. This study explores the economic benefits associated with the implementation of a Reinforcement Learning (RL) control strategy for the participation in an incentive-based demand response program of a cluster of commercial buildings. To this purpose, optimized Rule-Based Control (RBC) strategies are compared with a RL controller. Moreover, a hybrid control strategy exploiting both RBC and RL is proposed. Results show that the RL algorithm outperforms the RBC in reducing the total energy cost, but it is less effective in fulfilling DR requirements. The hybrid controller achieves a reduction in energy consumption and energy costs by respectively 7% and 4% compared to a manually optimized RBC, while fulfilling DR constraints during incentive-based events.
Exploring the potentialities of deep reinforcement learning for incentive-based demand response in a cluster of small commercial buildings / Deltetto, D.; Coraci, D.; Pinto, G.; Piscitelli, M. S.; Capozzoli, A.. - In: ENERGIES. - ISSN 1996-1073. - ELETTRONICO. - 14:10(2021), p. 2933. [10.3390/en14102933]
|Titolo:||Exploring the potentialities of deep reinforcement learning for incentive-based demand response in a cluster of small commercial buildings|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2021|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/en14102933|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|