Pesticides are chemical compounds used to eliminate pests; among them, herbicides are compounds particularly toxic to weeds, and this property is exploited to protect the crops from unwanted plants. Pesticides are used to protect and maximize the yield and quality of crops. The excessive use of these chemicals and their persistence in the environment have generated serious problems, namely pollution of soil, water, and, to a lower extent, air, causing harmful effects to the ecosystem and along the food chain. About soil pollution, the residual concentration of pesticides is often over the limits allowed by the regulations. Where this occurs, the challenge is to reduce the amount of these chemicals and obtain agricultural soils suitable for growing ecofriendly crops. The microbial metabolism of indigenous microorganisms can be exploited for degradation since bioremediation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, rather efficient method compared to the physical and chemical ones. Several biodegradation techniques are available, based on bacterial, fungal, or enzymatic degradation. The removal efficiencies of these processes depend on the type of pollutant and the chemical and physical conditions of the soil. The regulation on the use of pesticides is strictly connected to their environmental impacts. Nowadays, every country can adopt regulations to restrict the consumption of pesticides, prohibit the most harmful ones, and define the admissible concentrations in the soil. However, this variability implies that each country has a different perception of the toxicology of these compounds, inducing different market values of the grown crops. This review aims to give a picture of the bioremediation of soils polluted with commercial pesticides, considering the features that characterize the main and most used ones, namely their classification and their toxicity, together with some elements of legislation into force around the world.

Bioremediation of Agricultural Soils Polluted with Pesticides: A Review / Raffa, CARLA MARIA; Chiampo, Fulvia. - In: BIOENGINEERING. - ISSN 2306-5354. - ELETTRONICO. - 8:7(2021), p. 92. [10.3390/bioengineering8070092]

Bioremediation of Agricultural Soils Polluted with Pesticides: A Review

Carla Maria Raffa;Fulvia Chiampo
2021

Abstract

Pesticides are chemical compounds used to eliminate pests; among them, herbicides are compounds particularly toxic to weeds, and this property is exploited to protect the crops from unwanted plants. Pesticides are used to protect and maximize the yield and quality of crops. The excessive use of these chemicals and their persistence in the environment have generated serious problems, namely pollution of soil, water, and, to a lower extent, air, causing harmful effects to the ecosystem and along the food chain. About soil pollution, the residual concentration of pesticides is often over the limits allowed by the regulations. Where this occurs, the challenge is to reduce the amount of these chemicals and obtain agricultural soils suitable for growing ecofriendly crops. The microbial metabolism of indigenous microorganisms can be exploited for degradation since bioremediation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, rather efficient method compared to the physical and chemical ones. Several biodegradation techniques are available, based on bacterial, fungal, or enzymatic degradation. The removal efficiencies of these processes depend on the type of pollutant and the chemical and physical conditions of the soil. The regulation on the use of pesticides is strictly connected to their environmental impacts. Nowadays, every country can adopt regulations to restrict the consumption of pesticides, prohibit the most harmful ones, and define the admissible concentrations in the soil. However, this variability implies that each country has a different perception of the toxicology of these compounds, inducing different market values of the grown crops. This review aims to give a picture of the bioremediation of soils polluted with commercial pesticides, considering the features that characterize the main and most used ones, namely their classification and their toxicity, together with some elements of legislation into force around the world.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11583/2910899