Defining the best combination of cells and biomaterials is a key challenge for the development of tendon tissue engineering (TE) strategies. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are ideal candidates for this purpose. In addition, controlled cell-based products adherent to good manufacturing practice (GMP) are required for their clinical scale-up. With this aim, in this study, ASC 3D bioprinting and GMP-compliant tenogenic differentiation were investigated. In detail, primary human ASCs were embedded within a nanofibrillar-cellulose/alginate bioink and 3D-bioprinted into multi-layered square-grid matrices. Bioink viscoelastic properties and scaffold ultrastructural morphology were analyzed by rheology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optimal cell concentration for printing among 3, 6 and 9 × 106 ASC/mL was evaluated in terms of cell viability. ASC morphology was characterized by SEM and F-actin immunostaining. Tenogenic differentiation ability was then evaluated in terms of cell viability, morphology and expression of scleraxis and collagen type III by biochemical induction using BMP-12, TGF-β3, CTGF and ascorbic acid supplementation (TENO). Pro-inflammatory cytokine release was also assessed. Bioprinted ASCs showed high viability and survival and exhibited a tenocyte-like phenotype after biochemical induction, with no inflammatory response to the bioink. In conclusion, we report a first proof of concept for the clinical scale-up of ASC 3D bioprinting for tendon TE.
3D Bioprinting of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Their Tenogenic Differentiation in Clinical-Grade Medium / Stanco, Deborah; Boffito, Monica; Bogni, Alessia; Puricelli, Luca; Barrero, Josefa; Soldati, Gianni; Ciardelli, Gianluca. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - ELETTRONICO. - 21:22(2020), pp. 1-23. [10.3390/ijms21228694]
|Titolo:||3D Bioprinting of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Their Tenogenic Differentiation in Clinical-Grade Medium|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228694|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|