To increase railway use efficiency, the European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) Level 3 requires all trains to constantly and reliably self-monitor and report their integrity and track position without infrastructure support. Timely train separation detection is challenging, especially for long freight trains without electrical power on cars. Data fusion of multiple monitoring techniques is currently investigated, including distributed integrity sensing of all train couplings. We propose a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) topology, communication protocol, application, and sensor nodes prototypes designed for low power timely train integrity reporting in unreliable conditions, like intermittent node operation and network association (e.g., in low environmental energy harvesting conditions) and unreliable radio links. Each train coupling is redundantly monitored by four sensors, which can help to satisfy the Train Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) and European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) SIL 4 requirements and contribute to the reliability of the asynchronous network with low rejoin overhead. A control center on the locomotive controls the WSN and receives the reports, helping the integration in railway or Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Software simulations of the embedded application code virtually unchanged show that the energy-optimized configurations check a 50-car train integrity (about 1 km long) in 3.6 s average with 0.1 s standard deviation and that more than 95 % of the reports are delivered successfully with up to one-third of communications or up to 15 % of the nodes failed. We also report qualitative test results for a 20-node network in different experimental conditions.
Asynchronous Resilient Wireless Sensor Network for Train Integrity Monitoring / Lazarescu, Mihai T.; Poolad, Pooya. - In: IEEE INTERNET OF THINGS JOURNAL. - ISSN 2327-4662. - ELETTRONICO. - 8:5(2021), pp. 3939-3954.
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|Titolo:||Asynchronous Resilient Wireless Sensor Network for Train Integrity Monitoring|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2021|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JIOT.2020.3026243|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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