A fire risk assessment has always been a challenging task. Performance-based approaches to fire engineering have shown that risk-based decisions and fire scenarios are fundamental elements that must be considered in fire safety strategies. A correct assessment of the fire risk allows all the involved stakeholders to identify a specific strategy from among a variety of possibilities. A risk assessment is the best tool to identify comparable fire protection strategies and to measure the reduction in fire risk that can be obtained with each specific prevention and protection measure, i.e., by means of different fire safety strategies. The present paper illustrates a method that takes into account several well-known methods, even some that were developed as far back as in the early seventies. The method is named ‘‘FLAME’’ (Fire Risk Assessment Method for Enterprises). FLAME considers fundamental fire safety aspects instead of making use of sophisticated and time-consuming methods like CFD. FLAME uses the ‘‘Fire Safety Concept Tree’’, which is explained in detail in the NFPA 550 Standard, as a reference scheme. The method allows the risk to the occupants to be evaluated separately from the risk to the building. Over the years, we have tested the method considering different kinds of buildings and occupancies. We here report the results of an application of the FLAME method to hospitals and health-care facilities. Overall, about 300 compartments (overall size of about 60,000 m2) were analysed, including two hospitals of about 200,000 m2 each. The results of the risk estimation with the FLAME code have been found to be coherent with Italian fire code prescriptions. About 44% of the compartments were defined as being at a Medium risk and 39% as being at a high risk (according to the Italian Fire Code). More than 60% of the hospital compartments were defined as being at a High risk. A good agreement was obtained between the RSET results with those of the method proposed in FLAME when using the current performance-based regulation criteria. The RSET estimation in FLAME considers the occupants’ behaviour and the actual characteristics of the occupants in clinics or hospitals, who often have difficulties due to reduced mobility or an incapacity to understand emergency instructions.
FLAME: A Parametric Fire Risk Assessment Method Supporting Performance Based Approaches / Danzi, Enrico; Fiorentini, Luca; Marmo, Luca. - In: FIRE TECHNOLOGY. - ISSN 0015-2684. - STAMPA. - (2020), pp. 1-45.
|Titolo:||FLAME: A Parametric Fire Risk Assessment Method Supporting Performance Based Approaches|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10694-020-01014-9|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|