Evidence of multiple-scattering-induced pulse stretching for the signal of both frequencies of the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Core Observatory satellite is presented on the basis of collocated ground-based WSR-88D S-band observations of an extreme case: a tornadic supercell. The ground-based observations clearly show a tilted convective core with a so-called bounded weak-echo region-that is, locations where precipitation is absent or extremely light at the ground while large amounts of liquid or frozen precipitation are present aloft. The satellite observations in this region show reflectivity profiles that extend all the way to the surface despite the absence of near-surface precipitation: these are here referred to as "ghost echoes." Furthermore, the Ku- and Ka-band profiles exhibit similar slopes, which is a typical sign that the observed power is almost entirely due to multiple scattering. A novel microphysical retrieval that is based on triple-frequency (S-Ku-Ka) observations shows that a dense ice core located between 4 and 14 km with particle sizes exceeding 2.5 cm and integrated ice contents exceeding 7.0 kg m-2 is the source of the ghost echoes of the signal in the lower layers. The level of confidence of this assessment is strengthened by the availability of the S-band data, which provide the necessary additional constraints to the radar retrieval that is based on DPR data. This study shows not only that multiple-scattering contributions may become predominant at Ka already very high up in the atmosphere but also that they play a key role at Ku band within the layers close to the surface. As a result, extreme caution must be paid even in the interpretation of Ku-based retrievals (e.g., the TRMM PR dataset or any DPR retrievals that are based on the assumption that Ku band is not affected by multiple scattering) when examining extreme surface rain rates that occur in the presence of deep dense ice layers.
Multiple-scattering-induced "ghost echoes" in GPM DPR observations of a tornadic supercell / Battaglia, A.; Mroz, K.; Tanelli, S.; Tridon, F.; Kirstetter, P. -E.. - In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY. - ISSN 1558-8424. - 55:8(2016), pp. 1653-1666.
|Titolo:||Multiple-scattering-induced "ghost echoes" in GPM DPR observations of a tornadic supercell|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-15-0136.1|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|