The performance of the laser-optical Particle Size Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer is evaluated to determine the characteristics of falling snow. PARSIVEL's measuring principle is reexamined to detect its limitations and pitfalls when applied to solid precipitation. This study uses snow observations taken during the Canadian Cloudsat/Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) Validation Project (C3VP) campaign, when two PARSIVEL instruments were collocated with a single two-dimensional disdrometer (2-DVD), which allows more detailed observation of snowflakes. When characterizing the snowflake size, PARSIVEL instruments inherently retrieve only one size parameter, which is approximately equal to the widest horizontal dimension (more accurately with large snowflakes) and that has no microphysical meaning. Unlike for raindrops, the equivolume PARSIVEL diameter-the PARSIVEL output variable-has no physical counterpart for snowflakes. PARSIVEL's fall velocity measurement may not be accurate for a single snowflake particle. This is due to the internally assumed relationship between horizontal and vertical snow particle dimensions. The uncertainty originates from the shape-related factor, which tends to depart more and more from unity with increasing snowflake sizes and can produce large errors. When averaging over a large number of snowflakes, the correction factor is size dependent with a systematic tendency to an underestimation of the fall speed (but never exceeding 20%). Compared to a collocated 2-DVD for long-lasting events, PARSIVEL seems to overestimate the number of small snowflakes and large particles. The disagreement between PARSIVEL and 2-DVD snow measurements can only be partly ascribed to PARSIVEL intrinsic limitations (border effects and sizing problems), but it has to deal with the difficulties and drawbacks of both instruments in fully characterizing snow properties. © 2010 American Meteorological Society.
PARSIVEL snow observations: A critical assessment / Battaglia, A.; Rustemeier, E.; Tokay, A.; Blahak, U.; Simmer, C.. - In: JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY. - ISSN 1520-0426. - 27:2(2010), pp. 333-344.
|Titolo:||PARSIVEL snow observations: A critical assessment|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2010|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2009JTECHA1332.1|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|