In this work, 316L cubes were produced by Directed Energy Deposition (DED) process. To evaluate the effect of deposition patterns on the microstructure, mechanical performance and residual stress of 316L samples, two different deposition strategies are selected (67° and 90°). The general microstructure is revealed, and then the effect of deposition pattern on the microstructure of 316L alloy is evaluated through the Primary Cellular Arm Spacing (PCAS) analysis. The cooling rate in each sample is estimated according to the PCAS values. Interestingly, it is found that by increasing the rotation angle per layer, the PCAS value decreases as a consequence of increment in the cooling rate. On the other hand, in both cases, by increasing the distance from the substrate, due to the changes in cooling mechanisms, the cooling rate at first decreases and then at the last layers increases again. The phase composition analysis of 316L samples confirms the predictions that suggested the presence of residual δ-ferrite in the final microstructure. In fact, the final microstructure of samples is characterized by austenitic dendrites together with some residual δ-ferrite in the interdendritic regions. Moreover, the microstructural evaluations exhibit that during the DED process, some metallic inclusions are formed within the 316L samples that consequently deteriorates their mechanical properties. Tensile results show that the samples with 90° rotation per layer have a better mechanical performance such as slightly higher ultimate tensile strength and almost 35% higher elongation to fracture, mainly owing to their finer microstructure and slightly less oxide content. However, in both cases, the elongation of the 316L samples is lower than the typical elongation of this material produced via DED. This discrepancy is found to be as a result of higher inclusions contents in the samples produced in this work with respect to those of literature. Lastly, it is found that the residual stresses on the top surfaces are similar for both deposition patterns, although higher stress values are observed on the lateral surfaces of the cubes produce using the 90° rotation per layer.
|Titolo:||An investigation on the effect of deposition pattern on the microstructure, mechanical properties and residual stress of 316L produced by Directed Energy Deposition|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.msea.2020.139179|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|