Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are molecules that can be actively or passively released by injured tissues and that activate the immune system. Here we show for the first time that the NAD biosynthetic enzyme nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT), the rate-limiting enzymes in the intracellular synthesis of NAD from nicotinic acid, is physiologically present in human sera, where it acts as a novel DAMP. We detected NAPRT in plasma/sera from human donors by antibody-mediated luminex assays and mass spectrometry. Exposure of human and mouse macrophages to NAPRT triggers activation of ERK1/2, phosphorylation of IKKα/β and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of the NF-kB complex, with synthesis and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-8, TNFα and CCL3. Furthermore, NAPRT enhances monocyte differentiation into macrophages, by inducing macrophage colony-stimulating factor. These effects are independent of the NAPRT catalytic activity, but rely on the protein’s binding to TLR4, as demonstrated by showing direct in vitro interaction and by the in vivo lack of NAPRT effects in TLR4−/− macrophages. In line with the finding that NAPRT mediates endotoxin tolerance, sera from patients with sepsis or septic shock contain the highest levels of circulating NAPRT, compared to other chronic inflammatory conditions, including cancer. Importantly, patients with serum NAPRT >15 ng/ml are characterized by a worse clinical outcome, compared to the counterparts. Together, these data identify NAPRT as a novel endogenous ligand for TLR4 and a critical mediator of inflammation.
|Titolo:||A circulating NAD biosynthetic enzyme is a novel modulator of inflammation|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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