The objective of this study is to describe a suitable model of atrial fibrillation cryoablation thermodynamic properties. Three different thermal loads were applied to a cylindrical copper element simulating the cryoprobe, thermally coupled with a Peltier stack producing the freezing effect, and in contact with a bovine liver sample. Thermal events occurring inside the samples were measured using mirror image technique. Heat subtracted flux during ice formation and minimum temperature measured at probe–tissue interface were, respectively, 1.33Wcm−2 and −27.8°C for Sample#0, 1.88Wcm−2 and −35.6°C for Sample#1 and 1.82Wcm−2 and 1.44Wcm−2 before and after the ice trigger, respectively, and −29.3°C for Sample#2. Ice trigger temperature was around −8.5°C for Sample#0 and Sample#2, and −10.4°C for Sample#1. In all the investigated samples, ice front penetration was proportional to the square root of time and its velocity depended on the heat flux subtracted. The fraction of the useful energy spent for ice formation was less than 60% for Sample#0, and about 80% for Sample#1 and for Sample#2, before the reduction of the removed heat flux. Freezing time exceeding a cut-off, according to the heat subtracted flux, does not improve the procedure effectiveness and is detrimental to the surrounding tissues.
|Titolo:||Thermodynamic properties of atrial fibrillation cryoablation: A model-based approach to improve knowledge on energy delivery|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1098/rsif.2019.0318|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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