The use of proactive ergonomics has become a priority for the study of the operator’s functionality in the working context, as well as in the optimization of work tasks and in the workplace design. The application of proactive ergonomics is adept to foresee and deal with changes and potential problems derived from the evolution of the industrial world. For these reasons, there is the necessity to use Digital Human Modeling (DHM) tools; they are capable to analyze postures and to perform ergonomic assessments according to international technical standards. In the first part of the thesis, a general overview of the different DHM tools is presented and some applications are shown. In particular, the study investigates the strengths and limitations of a multibody model developed in collaboration between industry and university. The postural angles of trunk bending and arm elevation of the model are defined in accordance with international regulations: ISO 11226:2000 and UNI EN 1005/4:2009. Since, the model is characterized by a limited number of degrees of freedom, it has been compared with the reference literature in order to validate it. Subsequently, the model was used for the verification of three case studies of real workstations, highlighting its usefulness in the design for different anthropometries of the operator. The postural angles, calculated in the validation study, were used to generate continuous postural maps with different interpolation methods. The postural maps were normalized with respect to main anthropometric measurements, in order to achieve results that can be generalized to different anthropometries of the operator. In the second part of the thesis, the project: “La Fabbrica si Misura”, developed in collaboration with Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) and with Istituto Nazionale Assicurazione Infortuni sul Lavoro (INAIL) is described. This project includes the measurement of a sample of 3000 male and female workers each, within the Italian production plants of FCA. This survey led to the generation of an updated anthropometric database of the Italian working population. The data were statistically analyzed in order to estimate the anthropometric models of the main percentiles that are referred to during design and to highlight significant anthropometric differences due to age and the geographical area of the sample. Among the utilities of the database, the generation of anthropometric models to update the virtual manikins of DHM tools is of particular interest. In the third and last part of the thesis, models of virtual manikins were obtained with various approaches; the different models were compared to highlight the differences and guide their choice in the assessment and design of workstations. A reliable estimate of the anthropometric measurements of the working population is particularly important in "human-centered design" and can support the design of "adaptable" workstations. Furthermore, it can correctly address the design of protective or auxiliary wearable devices such as the exoskeletons.

Generazione di manichini virtuali da dati antropometrici ed applicazioni con strumenti di modellazione umana virtuale / Castellone, Raffaele. - (2018 May 24).

Generazione di manichini virtuali da dati antropometrici ed applicazioni con strumenti di modellazione umana virtuale

CASTELLONE, RAFFAELE
2018-05-24

Abstract

The use of proactive ergonomics has become a priority for the study of the operator’s functionality in the working context, as well as in the optimization of work tasks and in the workplace design. The application of proactive ergonomics is adept to foresee and deal with changes and potential problems derived from the evolution of the industrial world. For these reasons, there is the necessity to use Digital Human Modeling (DHM) tools; they are capable to analyze postures and to perform ergonomic assessments according to international technical standards. In the first part of the thesis, a general overview of the different DHM tools is presented and some applications are shown. In particular, the study investigates the strengths and limitations of a multibody model developed in collaboration between industry and university. The postural angles of trunk bending and arm elevation of the model are defined in accordance with international regulations: ISO 11226:2000 and UNI EN 1005/4:2009. Since, the model is characterized by a limited number of degrees of freedom, it has been compared with the reference literature in order to validate it. Subsequently, the model was used for the verification of three case studies of real workstations, highlighting its usefulness in the design for different anthropometries of the operator. The postural angles, calculated in the validation study, were used to generate continuous postural maps with different interpolation methods. The postural maps were normalized with respect to main anthropometric measurements, in order to achieve results that can be generalized to different anthropometries of the operator. In the second part of the thesis, the project: “La Fabbrica si Misura”, developed in collaboration with Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) and with Istituto Nazionale Assicurazione Infortuni sul Lavoro (INAIL) is described. This project includes the measurement of a sample of 3000 male and female workers each, within the Italian production plants of FCA. This survey led to the generation of an updated anthropometric database of the Italian working population. The data were statistically analyzed in order to estimate the anthropometric models of the main percentiles that are referred to during design and to highlight significant anthropometric differences due to age and the geographical area of the sample. Among the utilities of the database, the generation of anthropometric models to update the virtual manikins of DHM tools is of particular interest. In the third and last part of the thesis, models of virtual manikins were obtained with various approaches; the different models were compared to highlight the differences and guide their choice in the assessment and design of workstations. A reliable estimate of the anthropometric measurements of the working population is particularly important in "human-centered design" and can support the design of "adaptable" workstations. Furthermore, it can correctly address the design of protective or auxiliary wearable devices such as the exoskeletons.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11583/2708894
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