This PhD thesis aims at investigating the possibility to detect landmines using hyperspectral imaging. Using this technology, we are able to acquire at each pixel of the image spectral data in hundreds of wavelengths. So, at each pixel we obtain a reflectance spectrum that is used as fingerprint to identify the materials in each pixel, and mainly in our project help us to detect the presence of landmines. The proposed process works as follows: a preconfigured drone (hexarotor or octorotor) will carry the hyperspectral camera. This programmed drone is responsible of flying over the contaminated area in order to take images from a safe distance. Various image processing techniques will be used to treat the image in order to isolate the landmine from the surrounding. Once the presence of a mine or explosives is suspected, an alarm signal is sent to the base station giving information about the type of the mine, its location and the clear path that could be taken by the mine removal team in order to disarm the mine. This technology has advantages over the actually used techniques: • It is safer because it limits the need of humans in the searching process and gives the opportunity to the demining team to detect the mines while they are in a safe region. • It is faster. A larger area could be cleared in a single day by comparison with demining techniques • This technique can be used to detect at the same time objects other than mines such oil or minerals. First, a presentation of the problem of landmines that is expanding worldwide referring to some statistics from the UN organizations is provided. In addition, a brief presentation of different types of landmines is shown. Unfortunately, new landmines are well camouflaged and are mainly made of plastic in order to make their detection using metal detectors harder. A summary of all landmine detection techniques is shown to give an idea about the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. In this work, we give an overview of different projects that worked on the detection of landmines using hyperspectral imaging. We will show the main results achieved in this field and future work to be done in order to make this technology effective. Moreover, we worked on different target detection algorithms in order to achieve high probability of detection with low false alarm rate. We tested different statistical and linear unmixing based methods. In addition, we introduced the use of radial basis function neural networks in order to detect landmines at subpixel level. A comparative study between different detection methods will be shown in the thesis. A study of the effect of dimensionality reduction using principal component analysis prior to classification is also provided. The study shows the dependency between the two steps (feature extraction and target detection). The selection of target detection algorithm will define if feature extraction in previous phase is necessary. A field experiment has been done in order to study how the spectral signature of landmine will change depending on the environment in which the mine is planted. For this, we acquired the spectral signature of 6 types of landmines in different conditions: in Lab where specific source of light is used; in field where mines are covered by grass; and when mines are buried in soil. The results of this experiment are very interesting. The signature of two types of landmines are used in the simulations. They are a database necessary for supervised detection of landmines. Also we extracted some spectral characteristics of landmines that would help us to distinguish mines from background.
|Titolo:||Hyperspectral Imaging for Landmine Detection|
|Data di pubblicazione:||12-dic-2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||8.1 Doctoral thesis Polito|