In the first part of this paper we review a mathematical model for the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that was developed in subsequent steps over several years. The model is meant to describe the evolution of AD in vivo. In [Y. Achdou et al., 2013] we treated the problem at a microscopic scale, where the typical length scale is a multiple of the size of the soma of a single neuron. Subsequently, in [M. Bertsch at al., 2016] we concentrated on the macroscopic scale, where brain neurons are regarded as a continuous medium, structured by their degree of malfunctioning. In the second part of the paper we consider the relation between the microscopic and the macroscopic models. In particular we show under which assumptions the kinetic transport equation, which in the macroscopic model governs the evolution of the probability measure for the degree of malfunctioning of neurons, can be derived from a particle-based setting. In the microscopic model we consider basically mechanism i), modelling it by a system of Smoluchowski equations for the amyloid concentration (describing the agglomeration phenomenon), with the addition of a diffusion term as well as of a source term on the neuronal membrane. At the macroscopic level instead we model processes i) and ii) by a system of Smoluchowski equations for the amyloid concentration, coupled to a kinetic-type transport equation for the distribution function of the degree of malfunctioning of the neurons. The second equation contains an integral term describing the random onset of the disease as a jump process localized in particularly sensitive areas of the brain. Even though we deliberately neglected many aspects of the complexity of the brain and the disease, numerical simulations are in both cases (microscopic and macroscopic) in good qualitative agreement with clinical data.

Microscopic and macroscopic models for the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease / Bertsch, Michiel; Franchi, Bruno; Tesi, Maria Carla; Tosin, Andrea. - In: JOURNAL OF PHYSICS. A, MATHEMATICAL AND THEORETICAL. - ISSN 1751-8113. - 50:41(2017), pp. 1-22. [10.1088/1751-8121/aa83bd]

Microscopic and macroscopic models for the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease

TOSIN, ANDREA
2017

Abstract

In the first part of this paper we review a mathematical model for the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that was developed in subsequent steps over several years. The model is meant to describe the evolution of AD in vivo. In [Y. Achdou et al., 2013] we treated the problem at a microscopic scale, where the typical length scale is a multiple of the size of the soma of a single neuron. Subsequently, in [M. Bertsch at al., 2016] we concentrated on the macroscopic scale, where brain neurons are regarded as a continuous medium, structured by their degree of malfunctioning. In the second part of the paper we consider the relation between the microscopic and the macroscopic models. In particular we show under which assumptions the kinetic transport equation, which in the macroscopic model governs the evolution of the probability measure for the degree of malfunctioning of neurons, can be derived from a particle-based setting. In the microscopic model we consider basically mechanism i), modelling it by a system of Smoluchowski equations for the amyloid concentration (describing the agglomeration phenomenon), with the addition of a diffusion term as well as of a source term on the neuronal membrane. At the macroscopic level instead we model processes i) and ii) by a system of Smoluchowski equations for the amyloid concentration, coupled to a kinetic-type transport equation for the distribution function of the degree of malfunctioning of the neurons. The second equation contains an integral term describing the random onset of the disease as a jump process localized in particularly sensitive areas of the brain. Even though we deliberately neglected many aspects of the complexity of the brain and the disease, numerical simulations are in both cases (microscopic and macroscopic) in good qualitative agreement with clinical data.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11583/2688821