Detergents are important compounds in numerous industrial processes with laundering industry being among their largest consumers. Due to their wide application, detergents are continuously developed to meet higher quality and environmental standards. Following this trend, this study discusses a life cycle analysis conducted on different detergents and industrial washing systems. In particular, detergent production, use, and feasible recovery in the laundering industry is evaluated. Detergent production shows wide impact distribution related to the various detergent sources, with a large influence on the ecosystem compared to the other impact categories. Calculations of the primary energy demand and the global warming potential reveal the fundamental role of the application of renewable resources in the detergent production phase. The calculated contribution of detergents in the overall impacts of washing processes is also significant: detergent use and discharge represent crucial issues to be addressed to reduce the environmental burdens of the laundering industry. Two membrane-based processes are thus proposed to recover water and detergents coupling the washing cycle with wastewater treatment and partial reuse. Addition of membrane setups to existing washing systems has negligible environmental burdens and energy demand, but it results in significant environmental gains: up to 50% of the overall impact can be reduced thanks to the recovery of resources in situ.
|Titolo:||Environmental impacts of detergents and benefits of their recovery in the laundering industry|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.04.012|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|