The current EU energy efficiency directive 2012/27/EU defines the existing building stocks as one of the most promising potential sector for achieving energy saving. Robust methodologies aimed to quantify the potential reduction of energy consumption for large building stocks need to be developed. To this purpose, a benchmarking analysis is necessary in order to support public planners in determining how well a building is performing, in setting credible targets for improving performance or in detecting abnormal energy consumption. In the present work, a novel methodology is proposed to perform a benchmarking analysis particularly suitable for heterogeneous samples of buildings. The methodology is based on the estimation of a statistical model for energy consumption – the Linear Mixed Effects Model –, so as to account for both the fixed effects shared by all individuals within a dataset and the random effects related to particular groups/classes of individuals in the population. The groups of individuals within the population have been classified by resorting to a supervised learning technique. Under this backdrop, a Monte Carlo simulation is worked out to compute the frequency distribution of annual energy consumption and identify a reference value for each group/class of buildings. The benchmarking analysis was tested for a case study of 100 out-patient Healthcare Centres in Northern Italy, finally resulting in 12 different frequency distributions for space and Domestic Hot Water heating energy consumption, one for each class of homogeneous class of buildings. From the median value of each frequency distribution, reference values were extracted to be used in a benchmarking analysis. Beyond being flexible, open and upgradeable over time, a benchmarking analysis relying on both a sound statistical basis and on stochastic simulation is indeed able to overcome the limitations of the more common deterministic or one-dimensional benchmarking approach.
A novel methodology for energy performance benchmarking of buildings by means of Linear Mixed Effect Model: The case of space and DHW heating of out-patient Healthcare Centres / Capozzoli, Alfonso; Piscitelli, MARCO SAVINO; Neri, Francesco; Grassi, Daniele; Serale, Gianluca. - In: APPLIED ENERGY. - ISSN 0306-2619. - STAMPA. - 171(2016), pp. 592-607.
|Titolo:||A novel methodology for energy performance benchmarking of buildings by means of Linear Mixed Effect Model: The case of space and DHW heating of out-patient Healthcare Centres|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.03.083|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|