Historically, attempts to use tunnel boring machines (TBMs) in Himalayan geology have been unsuccessful, particularly where weak rocks exist at the significant depths often required for hydroelectric hydraulic tunnels resulting in squeezing ground conditions. The use of segmental tunnel linings erected by shielded TBMs presents additional risk, such that the advantages of potentially high rates of advance using this form of construction have not previously been realised. Programme demands for the 330MW Kishanganga Hydroelectric Project in India required that 15 km of the 23 km headrace tunnel be constructed using a double-shield TBM erecting a segmental lining. Preliminary studies suggested difficult ground due to squeezing conditions along the 1400 m deep tunnel through weak meta-sedimentary rocks. To allow planning and construction to commence, a risk management approach to design and construction was formulated with contingency procedures and criteria developed to allow the risks to the TBM and the lining to be managed effectively. Advanced numerical modelling included analysis of the tunnel with the ground represented by a Stress Hardening Elastic Viscous Plastic (SHELVIP) model to take account of time dependent loading. The Kishanganga tunnel represents the first segmentally lined TBM tunnel to be successfully constructed in the Himalaya. This paper describes the risk-mitigation approach, the special measures developed to address the risks, the numerical modelling and laboratory testing undertaken, and includes results from the segmental lining monitoring. Recognition of the risks, the development of an innovative methodology and the provision of the means by which geotechnical risk could be managed effectively during construction, gave confidence to all stakeholders to proceed with a method of construction that had not previously been implemented successfully in the Himalaya.
|Titolo:||Geotechnical risk management approach for TBM tunnelling in squeezing ground conditions|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.tust.2016.01.013|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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