Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements at relatively low Reynolds numbers in a turbulent boundary layer over a three-dimensional roughened surface, consisting of pyramidal rows, have been presented. Measurements have been taken in a streamwise wall-normal plane intercepting the apex of a row of pyramids and the diagonal of the square base. The results shown in this paper point out the non-homogeneity of the flowin the roughness sub-layer. The different flow behaviour along the ascendant and the descendent part of the pyramids and in the region between two consecutive pyramids has been visualised. Low values of the streamwise component of the mean velocity and high values of the streamwise and wall-normal component of the Reynolds normal stresses, turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds shear stresses are present in the downstream part of the pyramids, near their base. The mean representation of the flow shows swirling patterns in correspondence of the top of the pyramids. It is suggested that this representation is produced mainly by vortical structures travelling along the wall, retarded and intensified when interacting with the flow around the roughness element and by swirling patterns originating from the interaction of the incoming flow with the pyramids. In order to understand the origin of the high turbulence activity observed downstream the pyramids, near their base, a conditional analysis based on the quadrant method has been performed. It has been shown that sweep events are the major contributor to the very high values of the Reynolds shear stresses observed in this region and are due to the combination of the vortical flow at the top of the pyramid and a large scale (with respect to the roughness element) inflow motion.
|Titolo:||Roughness sub-layer investigation of a turbulent boundary layer|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1080/14685248.2015.1088657|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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