A large number of papers of the literature quote dyeing intensification based on the application of ultrasound (US) in the dyeing liquor. Mass transfer mechanisms are described and quantified, nevertheless these experimental results in general refer to small laboratory apparatuses with a capacity of a few hundred millilitres and extremely high volumetric energy intensity. With the strategy of overcoming the scale-up inaccuracy consequent to the technological application of ultrasounds, a dyeing pilot-plant prototype of suitable liquor capacity (about 40 L) and properly simulating several liquor to textile hydraulic relationships was designed by including US transducers with different geometries. Optimal dyeing may be obtained by optimizing the distance between transducer and textile material, the liquid height being a non-negligible operating parameter. Hence, mapping the cavitation energy in the machinery is expected to provide basic data on the intensity and distribution of the ultrasonic field in the aqueous liquor. A flat ultrasonic transducer (absorbed electrical power of 600 W), equipped with eight devices emitting at 25 kHz, was mounted horizontally at the equipment bottom. Considering industrial scale dyeing, liquor and textile substrate are reciprocally displaced to achieve a uniform coloration. In this technology a non uniform US field could affect the dyeing evenness to a large extent; hence, mapping the cavitation energy distribution in the machinery is expected to provide fundamental data and define optimal operating conditions. Local values of the cavitation intensity were recorded by using a carefully calibrated Ultrasonic Energy Meter, which is able to measure the power per unit surface generated by the cavitation implosion of bubbles. More than 200 measurements were recorded to define the map at each horizontal plane positioned at a different distance from the US transducer; tap water was heated at the same temperature used for dyeing tests (60 °C). Different liquid flow rates were tested to investigate the effect of the hydrodynamics characterizing the equipment. The mapping of the cavitation intensity in the pilot-plant machinery was performed to achieve with the following goals: a) to evaluate the influence of turbulence on the cavitation intensity, and b) to determine the optimal distance from the ultrasound device at which a fabric should be positioned, this parameter being a compromise between the cavitation intensity (higher next to the transducer) and the US field uniformity (achieved at some distance from this device). By carrying out dyeing tests of wool fabrics in the prototype unit, consistent results were confirmed by comparison with the mapping of cavitation intensity.
Mapping of Cavitational Activity in a Pilot Plant Dyeing Equipment / G. Actis Grande; M. Giansetti; A. Pezzin; G. Rovero; S. Sicardi. - In: ULTRASONICS SONOCHEMISTRY. - ISSN 1350-4177. - ELETTRONICO. - 27(In corso di stampa), pp. 440-448.
|Titolo:||Mapping of Cavitational Activity in a Pilot Plant Dyeing Equipment|
|Data di pubblicazione:||Being printed|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.ultsonch.2015.06.004|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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