The water treatment plant (WTP) of the city of Torino (NW Italy), which treats about 40•106 m3/y of raw water from Po river, has a 15-ha basin used as a lagooning pre-treatment facility. Since the efficiency of the lagooning process in the removal of pollutants from raw water depends on the internal hydrodynamics of the basin, the hydraulic performance of the basin was studied by combining the results of a stimulus-response tracer test with the monitoring of the tracer (fluoride) concentration throughout the basin at different times. The outcomes of the test demonstrated that the system was efficiently mixed and could be assimilated to a continuous stirred reactor presenting no flow anomalies, with an actual mean residence time (RT) of 12.7 days, compared with a nominal RT of 18 days. This assured that dissolved contaminants (such as fluoride) coming from the river were efficiently diluted before entering the WTP. The axial dispersion coefficient calculated from the RT distribution was of approximately 47,300 m2/d. Three of the most popular formulae developed for the calculation of the axial dispersion coefficient provided results spreading over three orders of magnitude, thus showing their limitations. Finally, because of the width extent of the basin and the characteristics of its inflow, the 1-D advection – dispersion model failed in predicting the tracer concentration values in time at the outlet channel. On the contrary, the analytical solution of the 2-D advection – dispersion model proved to be suitable to fit the tracer concentration data over time at the outlet channel but it failed in describing the tracer distribution throughout the basin on the monitoring dates.
|Titolo:||Fluoride tracer test for the performance analysis of a basin used as a lagooning pre-treatment facility in a WTP|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1007/s11356-015-4164-9|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|