The accurate and efficient solution of Maxwell’s equation is the problem addressed by the scientific discipline called Computational ElectroMagnetics (CEM). Many macroscopic phenomena in a great number of fields are governed by this set of differential equations: electronic, geophysics, medical and biomedical technologies, virtual EM prototyping, besides the traditional antenna and propagation applications. Therefore, many efforts are focussed on the development of new and more efficient approach to solve Maxwell’s equation. The interest in CEM applications is growing on. Several problems, hard to figure out few years ago, can now be easily addressed thanks to the reliability and flexibility of new technologies, together with the increased computational power. This technology evolution opens the possibility to address large and complex tasks. Many of these applications aim to simulate the electromagnetic behavior, for example in terms of input impedance and radiation pattern in antenna problems, or Radar Cross Section for scattering applications. Instead, problems, which solution requires high accuracy, need to implement full wave analysis techniques, e.g., virtual prototyping context, where the objective is to obtain reliable simulations in order to minimize measurement number, and as consequence their cost. Besides, other tasks require the analysis of complete structures (that include an high number of details) by directly simulating a CAD Model. This approach allows to relieve researcher of the burden of removing useless details, while maintaining the original complexity and taking into account all details. Unfortunately, this reduction implies: (a) high computational effort, due to the increased number of degrees of freedom, and (b) worsening of spectral properties of the linear system during complex analysis. The above considerations underline the needs to identify appropriate information technologies that ease solution achievement and fasten required elaborations. The authors analysis and expertise infer that Grid Computing techniques can be very useful to these purposes. Grids appear mainly in high performance computing environments. In this context, hundreds of offtheshelf nodes are linked together and work in parallel to solve problems, that, previously, could be addressed sequentially or by using supercomputers. Grid Computing is a technique developed to elaborate enormous amounts of data and enables largescale resource sharing to solve problem by exploiting distributed scenarios. The main advantage of Grid is due to parallel computing, indeed if a problem can be split in smaller tasks, that can be executed independently, its solution calculation fasten up considerably. To exploit this advantage, it is necessary to identify a technique able to split original electromagnetic task into a set of smaller subproblems. The Domain Decomposition (DD) technique, based on the block generation algorithm introduced in Matekovits et al. (2007) and Francavilla et al. (2011), perfectly addresses our requirements (see Section 3.4 for details). In this chapter, a Grid Computing infrastructure is presented. This architecture allows parallel block execution by distributing tasks to nodes that belong to the Grid. The set of nodes is composed by physical machines and virtualized ones. This feature enables great flexibility and increase available computational power. Furthermore, the presence of virtual nodes allows a full and efficient Grid usage, indeed the presented architecture can be used by different users that run different applications.
Grid Infrastructure for Domain Decomposition Methods in Computational ElectroMagnetics / Terzo, Olivier; Ruiu, Pietro; Mossucca, L; Francavilla, MATTEO ALESSANDRO; Vipiana, Francesca  In: Grid Computing  Technology and Applications, Widespread Coverage and New HorizonsELETTRONICO.  Croazia : Soha Maad (Ed.), 2012.  ISBN 9789535106043.  pp. 247266 [10.5772/36691]
Grid Infrastructure for Domain Decomposition Methods in Computational ElectroMagnetics
TERZO, OLIVIER;RUIU, PIETRO;FRANCAVILLA, MATTEO ALESSANDRO;VIPIANA, Francesca
2012
Abstract
The accurate and efficient solution of Maxwell’s equation is the problem addressed by the scientific discipline called Computational ElectroMagnetics (CEM). Many macroscopic phenomena in a great number of fields are governed by this set of differential equations: electronic, geophysics, medical and biomedical technologies, virtual EM prototyping, besides the traditional antenna and propagation applications. Therefore, many efforts are focussed on the development of new and more efficient approach to solve Maxwell’s equation. The interest in CEM applications is growing on. Several problems, hard to figure out few years ago, can now be easily addressed thanks to the reliability and flexibility of new technologies, together with the increased computational power. This technology evolution opens the possibility to address large and complex tasks. Many of these applications aim to simulate the electromagnetic behavior, for example in terms of input impedance and radiation pattern in antenna problems, or Radar Cross Section for scattering applications. Instead, problems, which solution requires high accuracy, need to implement full wave analysis techniques, e.g., virtual prototyping context, where the objective is to obtain reliable simulations in order to minimize measurement number, and as consequence their cost. Besides, other tasks require the analysis of complete structures (that include an high number of details) by directly simulating a CAD Model. This approach allows to relieve researcher of the burden of removing useless details, while maintaining the original complexity and taking into account all details. Unfortunately, this reduction implies: (a) high computational effort, due to the increased number of degrees of freedom, and (b) worsening of spectral properties of the linear system during complex analysis. The above considerations underline the needs to identify appropriate information technologies that ease solution achievement and fasten required elaborations. The authors analysis and expertise infer that Grid Computing techniques can be very useful to these purposes. Grids appear mainly in high performance computing environments. In this context, hundreds of offtheshelf nodes are linked together and work in parallel to solve problems, that, previously, could be addressed sequentially or by using supercomputers. Grid Computing is a technique developed to elaborate enormous amounts of data and enables largescale resource sharing to solve problem by exploiting distributed scenarios. The main advantage of Grid is due to parallel computing, indeed if a problem can be split in smaller tasks, that can be executed independently, its solution calculation fasten up considerably. To exploit this advantage, it is necessary to identify a technique able to split original electromagnetic task into a set of smaller subproblems. The Domain Decomposition (DD) technique, based on the block generation algorithm introduced in Matekovits et al. (2007) and Francavilla et al. (2011), perfectly addresses our requirements (see Section 3.4 for details). In this chapter, a Grid Computing infrastructure is presented. This architecture allows parallel block execution by distributing tasks to nodes that belong to the Grid. The set of nodes is composed by physical machines and virtualized ones. This feature enables great flexibility and increase available computational power. Furthermore, the presence of virtual nodes allows a full and efficient Grid usage, indeed the presented architecture can be used by different users that run different applications.File  Dimensione  Formato  

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