Spiramycin, a widely used veterinary macrolide antibiotic, was found at traceable levels (nanograms per litre range) in Po River water (N-Italy). The aqueous environmental fate of this antibiotic compound was studied through drug decomposition, the identification of the main and secondary transformation products (TPs), assessment of mineralisation and the investigation of drug TPs toxicity. Initially, laboratory experiments were performed, with the aim of stimulating the antibacterial transformation processes followed in aquatic systems. The TPs were identified through the employment of the liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry technique. Under illumination, spiramycin degraded rapidly and transformed into numerous organic (intermediate) compounds, of which 11 could be identified, formed through five initial transformation routes. These laboratory simulation experiments were verified in situ to check the mechanism previously supposed. Po River water was sampled and analysed (by LC-high-resolution mass spectrometry) at eight sampling points. Among the previously identified TPs, five of them were also found in the river water. Three of them seem to be formed through a direct photolysis process, while the other two are formed through indirect photolysis processes mediated by natural photo sensitisers. The transformation occurring in the aquatic system involved hydroxylation, demethylation and the detachment of forosamine or mycarose sugars. Toxicity assays using Vibrio fischeri proved that even if spiramycin did not exhibit toxicity, its transformation proceeded through the formation of toxic products.
|Titolo:||Fate of antibacterial spiramycin in river waters|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2010|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1007/s00216-009-3318-3|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|