Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) can be produced from fermentation/anaerobic digestion of wastes and are a valuable substrate for numerous applications, such as those related to the food, tanning, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and chemicals industry. They are also inexpensive raw materials for developing alternative sources of energy. However, the separation and purification of VFAs produced from fermented wastewaters are not straightforward goals, due to the low concentration of these compounds in the fermentation broths and owing to the complexity of these mixtures. Cost-effective and sustainable technologies must be developed to recover VFAs efficiently and allow their beneficial use. In this paper, a comprehensive review of VFAs recovery/purification methods is provided, with focus on membrane-based processes. First, the VFAs production methods, application, and conventional processes (distillation, precipitation, adsorption, and extraction) for their recovery are briefly reviewed. Then, the ability of various membrane-based techniques to separate and purify VFAs are evaluated and discussed in detail. This discussion includes the processes of microfiltration/ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, forward osmosis, membrane distillation, electrodialysis, membrane contractor, and pervapo- ration. Extensive background and examples of applications are also provided to show the effectiveness of membrane processes. Finally, challenges and future research directions are highlighted.
|Titolo:||Feasibility of membrane processes for the recovery and purification of bio-based volatile fatty acids: A comprehensive review|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.jiec.2019.09.009|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|