The goal of cardiac electrophysiology is to obtain information about the mechanism, function, and performance of the electrical activities of the heart, the identification of deviation from normal pattern and the design of treatments. Offering a better insight into cardiac arrhythmias comprehension and management, signal processing can help the physician to enhance the treatment strategies, in particular in case of atrial fibrillation (AF), a very common atrial arrhythmia which is associated to significant morbidities, such as increased risk of mortality, heart failure, and thromboembolic events. Catheter ablation of AF is a therapeutic technique which uses radiofrequency energy to destroy atrial tissue involved in the arrhythmia sustenance, typically aiming at the electrical disconnection of the of the pulmonary veins triggers. However, recurrence rate is still very high, showing that the very complex and heterogeneous nature of AF still represents a challenging problem. Leveraging the tools of non-stationary and statistical signal processing, the first part of our work has a twofold focus: firstly, we compare the performance of two different ablation technologies, based on contact force sensing or remote magnetic controlled, using signal-based criteria as surrogates for lesion assessment. Furthermore, we investigate the role of ablation parameters in lesion formation using the late-gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Secondly, we hypothesized that in human atria the frequency content of the bipolar signal is directly related to the local conduction velocity (CV), a key parameter characterizing the substrate abnormality and influencing atrial arrhythmias. Comparing the degree of spectral compression among signals recorded at different points of the endocardial surface in response to decreasing pacing rate, our experimental data demonstrate a significant correlation between CV and the corresponding spectral centroids. However, complex spatio-temporal propagation pattern characterizing AF spurred the need for new signals acquisition and processing methods. Multi-electrode catheters allow whole-chamber panoramic mapping of electrical activity but produce an amount of data which need to be preprocessed and analyzed to provide clinically relevant support to the physician. Graph signal processing has shown its potential on a variety of applications involving high-dimensional data on irregular domains and complex network. Nevertheless, though state-of-the-art graph-based methods have been successful for many tasks, so far they predominantly ignore the time-dimension of data. To address this shortcoming, in the second part of this dissertation, we put forth a Time-Vertex Signal Processing Framework, as a particular case of the multi-dimensional graph signal processing. Linking together the time-domain signal processing techniques with the tools of GSP, the Time-Vertex Signal Processing facilitates the analysis of graph structured data which also evolve in time. We motivate our framework leveraging the notion of partial differential equations on graphs. We introduce joint operators, such as time-vertex localization and we present a novel approach to significantly improve the accuracy of fast joint filtering. We also illustrate how to build time-vertex dictionaries, providing conditions for efficient invertibility and examples of constructions. The experimental results on a variety of datasets suggest that the proposed tools can bring significant benefits in various signal processing and learning tasks involving time-series on graphs. We close the gap between the two parts illustrating the application of graph and time-vertex signal processing to the challenging case of multi-channels intracardiac signals.

Statistical and Graph-Based Signal Processing: Fundamental Results and Application to Cardiac Electrophysiology / Grassi, Francesco. - (2018 Jul 04). [10.6092/polito/porto/2710580]

Statistical and Graph-Based Signal Processing: Fundamental Results and Application to Cardiac Electrophysiology

GRASSI, FRANCESCO
2018-07-04

Abstract

The goal of cardiac electrophysiology is to obtain information about the mechanism, function, and performance of the electrical activities of the heart, the identification of deviation from normal pattern and the design of treatments. Offering a better insight into cardiac arrhythmias comprehension and management, signal processing can help the physician to enhance the treatment strategies, in particular in case of atrial fibrillation (AF), a very common atrial arrhythmia which is associated to significant morbidities, such as increased risk of mortality, heart failure, and thromboembolic events. Catheter ablation of AF is a therapeutic technique which uses radiofrequency energy to destroy atrial tissue involved in the arrhythmia sustenance, typically aiming at the electrical disconnection of the of the pulmonary veins triggers. However, recurrence rate is still very high, showing that the very complex and heterogeneous nature of AF still represents a challenging problem. Leveraging the tools of non-stationary and statistical signal processing, the first part of our work has a twofold focus: firstly, we compare the performance of two different ablation technologies, based on contact force sensing or remote magnetic controlled, using signal-based criteria as surrogates for lesion assessment. Furthermore, we investigate the role of ablation parameters in lesion formation using the late-gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Secondly, we hypothesized that in human atria the frequency content of the bipolar signal is directly related to the local conduction velocity (CV), a key parameter characterizing the substrate abnormality and influencing atrial arrhythmias. Comparing the degree of spectral compression among signals recorded at different points of the endocardial surface in response to decreasing pacing rate, our experimental data demonstrate a significant correlation between CV and the corresponding spectral centroids. However, complex spatio-temporal propagation pattern characterizing AF spurred the need for new signals acquisition and processing methods. Multi-electrode catheters allow whole-chamber panoramic mapping of electrical activity but produce an amount of data which need to be preprocessed and analyzed to provide clinically relevant support to the physician. Graph signal processing has shown its potential on a variety of applications involving high-dimensional data on irregular domains and complex network. Nevertheless, though state-of-the-art graph-based methods have been successful for many tasks, so far they predominantly ignore the time-dimension of data. To address this shortcoming, in the second part of this dissertation, we put forth a Time-Vertex Signal Processing Framework, as a particular case of the multi-dimensional graph signal processing. Linking together the time-domain signal processing techniques with the tools of GSP, the Time-Vertex Signal Processing facilitates the analysis of graph structured data which also evolve in time. We motivate our framework leveraging the notion of partial differential equations on graphs. We introduce joint operators, such as time-vertex localization and we present a novel approach to significantly improve the accuracy of fast joint filtering. We also illustrate how to build time-vertex dictionaries, providing conditions for efficient invertibility and examples of constructions. The experimental results on a variety of datasets suggest that the proposed tools can bring significant benefits in various signal processing and learning tasks involving time-series on graphs. We close the gap between the two parts illustrating the application of graph and time-vertex signal processing to the challenging case of multi-channels intracardiac signals.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11583/2710580
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