In Europe, since the end of the 1980s, a number of comparative planning studies have been conducted exemplifying the diversity of planning approaches that characterise the Continent. Among others, these contributions introduced the concept of legal families as being strictly connected with the features undertaken by spatial planning in a given context. In 1997, a more comprehensive approach was proposed by the EU Compendium of Spatial Planning Systems and Policies, introducing so-called spatial planning traditions or ideal-types. Since then, numerous research initiatives have been concentrating on the evolution spatial planning systems in Europe, on the basis of social, cultural or legislative approaches. The research’s contribution is not only aligned to the previous experiences but has the ambition to shed light on countries like Croatia, Albania and Bosnia & Herzegovina, that have been excluded from any previous study. In doing that, particular attention has been paid to the role played by the international contexts and actors (such as the EU, the World Bank, the United Nations’ Development Programme, the International Monetary Fund, the national development agencies of foreign countries etc.). Indeed, because of the transition period, the international context has been widely active in the region, contributing to address the process of transformation of the considered countries (economical, societal and cultural changes). The idea of the research is to investigate how these processes have affected each spatial planning system, and how each of them has adapted in order to respond, or not, to these stimuli, according to the theory of path-dependency. Adopting a comparative approach, the research aims to shed light on the evolution process of each spatial planning system concentrating on the reasons behind and beyond the transformations. In this respect, methodologically and theoretically speaking, an actor-centred explanatory model has been conceptualised and applied in order to simultaneously mobilise features deriving from historical and actor-centred institutionalisms approaches. In this perspective, the model borrows from historical institutionalism the basic idea that “history matters”, and from actor-centred institutionalism the need to bring the “actor at the centre” of the analysis. According to the model, each country has been investigated in different moments. Firstly, understanding the geographical, social and economic changes since 1990 until now, concentrating on the most significant dimensions of transformation (such as political, economic, institutional, social, behavioural and of power) and their spatial implications. Secondly, describing the evolution of the spatial planning system’s tradition since the beginning of the last century, aiming to better situate the recent transformations within a wide historical context. Thirdly, investigating the recent path of transformation of spatial planning system from the perspective of its different constitutive components, i.e. structural, technical, practice and discursive components. On the basis of this background, the role played by both international and local actors in influencing the described patterns of change in the three countries’ spatial planning system has been explored. In doing so, the research demonstrates how and when the international actors have been influential in shaping the evolution of the spatial planning systems in the Western Balkan Region, and in particular in the analysed countries. Their impacts have been variable in space, time, sectors and levels. As emerged, their influential mechanisms, hence their impacts, have differed from one country to another, and often differences have been emerging even within each country. Even their policy changed over the almost three decades of transition. The same actors, indeed, changed their targets and strategies several times according to contextual needs or their own priorities, which have been fluctuating from a humanitarian approach to the support of the path of EU integration. Different approaches have been followed also concerning the impacted areas. Through time, indeed, some actors focused on very sectoral issues while others adopted a more integrated approach. Finally, the nature of the influence and of the produced impact has varied according to each affected level of the state administration. Some actors focused on producing recommendations targeting the national level while others acted through the direct implementation of local level projects and programs. In this perspective, particular attention has been paid to understanding the role played by the EU as one of the most impactful actors. Overall, the research shows how spatial planning is a complex field composed by a number of interconnected dimensions and scales and proposes an investigation methodology that consider the actors and their role as the main analytical components. The evidence collected through this work contribute to shed some light on the evolutions of spatial planning in the Western Balkan region, that is soon going to be fully integrated into the European Union. In this light, it constitutes a solid foundation upon which to build future, more comprehensive research on the matter.
The evolution of spatial planning systems in the Western Balkan Region. Between international influences and domestic actors / Berisha, Erblin. - (2018 May 14).
|Titolo:||The evolution of spatial planning systems in the Western Balkan Region. Between international influences and domestic actors|
|Data di pubblicazione:||14-mag-2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||8.1 Doctoral thesis Polito|