We are surrounded by objects. We often use and interact with them to do our daily activities. They do not only support us and augment our abilities, but also, can be considered as companions of our thoughts. We think with objects, because they contain information about us: about our memories, experiences, emotions, and activities as Sherry Turkle highlights (2011). Furthermore, our everyday objects are increasingly computed, smart and connected to the Internet. They are able to collect data, elaborate and provide real-time feedbacks. These feedbacks cannot only support us to improve our activities, but also enables critical thinking and reflection on our actions. This resonates very well with what Donald Schön meant by having reflective conversation with materials at hand (1983;1996). He highlighted that materials –artifacts– of a situation talk back to designer, so they enable and support reflection in action of designing. So, how about if we consider that our daily objects can talk back and make us think on our actions in order to consider alternatives? This dissertation, is an attempt to consider this opportunity. The nature of this dissertation is mostly conceptual and its scope is defining the physical and behavioral characteristics of smart artifacts able to provoke thoughts and reflection in user leading to a conscious behavior change. I sought to use existing theories about reflective thinking in HCI and beyond, as valuable sources for developing design concept. I have been inspired by the Concept-Driven interaction design research (Stolterman and Wiberg 2011) and created and defined the whole structure of this dissertation based on this methodology, from the definition of the concept – Tool for Reflection – to the construction of a theoretical model from the design outcome –Make Me Think model. During this process, I used different methods such as conducting literature analysis, context analysis, survey, participatory session and prototyping. The sustainable urban mobility behaviors in the city of Turin (Italy) as the target behavior and home as the place for using Tool for Reflection have been chosen for this research. In particular, informed by architectural studies, I conceptualized In-Between Places as a category of places that connect home places to city places. I suggested to consider such areas as suitable places for evoking thoughts on urban mobility behaviors, in home. This dissertation provides a theoretical perspective with which to guide the design of smart objects that evoke reflection. It first provides a set of characteristics of a Tool for Reflection as a physical artifact. Then it provides a theoretical model, considering the relationship between a Tool for Reflection and a user. The key contributions include the design of the Sóle, a smart lamp, not only as an example of a Tool for Reflection with its theoretically pre-defined characteristics, but also as an instrument for iterating from design to the theory. The overall approach, the methodology and the findings should be of interest in particular to researchers working on design for reflection in the HCI. More broadly this dissertation can be of interest of researchers in the HCI, whose research is around designing artifacts, both as an ‘outcome’ and as an ‘instrument’ of the research process.
|Titolo:||Designing Tools for Reflection: a concept-driven approach|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2-mar-2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||8.1 Doctoral thesis Polito|