All different kinds of organizations – business, public, and non-governmental alike – are becoming aware of a soaring complexity in problem solving, decision making and idea development. In a multitude of circumstances, multidisciplinary teams, high-caliber skilled resources and world-class computer suites do not suffice to cope with such a complexity: in fact, a further need concerns the sharing and ‘externalization’ of tacit knowledge already existing in the society. In this direction, participatory tendencies flourishing in the interconnected society in which we live today lead ‘collective intelligence’ to emerge as key ingredient of distributed problem solving systems going well beyond the traditional boundaries of organizations. Resulting outputs can remarkably enrich decision processes and creative processes carried out by indoor experts, allowing organizations to reap benefits in terms of opportunity, time and cost. Taking stock of the mare magnum of promising opportunities to be tapped, of the inherent diversity lying among them, and of the enormous success of some initiative launched hitherto, the thesis aspires to provide a sound basis for the clear comprehension and systematic exploitation of crowdsourcing. After a thorough literature review, the thesis explores new ways for formalizing crowdsourcing models with the aim of distilling a brand-new multi-dimensional framework to categorize various crowdsourcing archetypes. To say it in a nutshell, the proposed framework combines two dimensions (i.e., motivations to participate and organization of external solvers) in order to portray six archetypes. Among the numerous significant elements of novelty brought by this framework, the prominent one is the ‘holistic’ approach that combines both profit and non-profit, trying to put private and public sectors under a common roof in order to examine in a whole corpus the multi-faceted mechanisms for mobilizing and harnessing competence and expertise which are distributed among the crowd. Looking at how the crowd may be turned into value to be internalized by organizations, the thesis examines crowdsourcing practices in the public as well in the private sector. Regarding the former, the investigation leverages the experience into the PADGETS project through action research – drawing on theoretical studies as well as on intensive fieldwork activities – to systematize how crowdsourcing can be fruitfully incorporated into the policy lifecycle. Concerning the private realm, a cohort of real cases in the limelight is examined – having recourse to case study methodology – to formalize different ways through which crowdsourcing becomes a business model game-changer. Finally, the two perspectives (i.e., public and private) are coalesced into an integrated view acting as a backdrop for proposing next-generation governance model massively hinged on crowdsourcing. In fact, drawing on archetypes schematized, the thesis depicts a potential paradigm that government may embrace in the coming future to tap the potential of collective intelligence, thus maximizing the utilization of a resource that today seems certainly underexploited.

A Multi-Dimensional Approach for Framing Crowdsourcing Archetypes / Osella, Michele. - (2014). [10.6092/polito/porto/2535900]

A Multi-Dimensional Approach for Framing Crowdsourcing Archetypes

OSELLA, MICHELE
2014

Abstract

All different kinds of organizations – business, public, and non-governmental alike – are becoming aware of a soaring complexity in problem solving, decision making and idea development. In a multitude of circumstances, multidisciplinary teams, high-caliber skilled resources and world-class computer suites do not suffice to cope with such a complexity: in fact, a further need concerns the sharing and ‘externalization’ of tacit knowledge already existing in the society. In this direction, participatory tendencies flourishing in the interconnected society in which we live today lead ‘collective intelligence’ to emerge as key ingredient of distributed problem solving systems going well beyond the traditional boundaries of organizations. Resulting outputs can remarkably enrich decision processes and creative processes carried out by indoor experts, allowing organizations to reap benefits in terms of opportunity, time and cost. Taking stock of the mare magnum of promising opportunities to be tapped, of the inherent diversity lying among them, and of the enormous success of some initiative launched hitherto, the thesis aspires to provide a sound basis for the clear comprehension and systematic exploitation of crowdsourcing. After a thorough literature review, the thesis explores new ways for formalizing crowdsourcing models with the aim of distilling a brand-new multi-dimensional framework to categorize various crowdsourcing archetypes. To say it in a nutshell, the proposed framework combines two dimensions (i.e., motivations to participate and organization of external solvers) in order to portray six archetypes. Among the numerous significant elements of novelty brought by this framework, the prominent one is the ‘holistic’ approach that combines both profit and non-profit, trying to put private and public sectors under a common roof in order to examine in a whole corpus the multi-faceted mechanisms for mobilizing and harnessing competence and expertise which are distributed among the crowd. Looking at how the crowd may be turned into value to be internalized by organizations, the thesis examines crowdsourcing practices in the public as well in the private sector. Regarding the former, the investigation leverages the experience into the PADGETS project through action research – drawing on theoretical studies as well as on intensive fieldwork activities – to systematize how crowdsourcing can be fruitfully incorporated into the policy lifecycle. Concerning the private realm, a cohort of real cases in the limelight is examined – having recourse to case study methodology – to formalize different ways through which crowdsourcing becomes a business model game-changer. Finally, the two perspectives (i.e., public and private) are coalesced into an integrated view acting as a backdrop for proposing next-generation governance model massively hinged on crowdsourcing. In fact, drawing on archetypes schematized, the thesis depicts a potential paradigm that government may embrace in the coming future to tap the potential of collective intelligence, thus maximizing the utilization of a resource that today seems certainly underexploited.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11583/2535900
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