In the last decades the deeper and more detailed understanding of rotating machinery dynamic behavior facilitated the study and the design of several devices aiming at friction reduction, vibration damping and control, rotational speed increase and mechanical design optimization. Among these devices a promising technology is represented by active magnetic actuators which found a great spread in rotordynamics and in high precision applications due to (a) the absence of all fatigue and tribology issues motivated by the absence of contact, (b) the small sensitivity to the operating conditions, (c) the wide possibility of tuning even during operation, (d) the predictability of the behavior. This technology can be classified as a typical mechatronic product due to its nature which involves mechanical, electrical and control aspects, merging them in a single system. The attractive potential of active magnetic suspensions motivated a considerable research effort for the past decade focused mostly on electrical actuation subsystem and control strategies. Examples of application areas are: (a) Turbomachinery, (b) Vibration isolation, (c) Machine tools and electric drives, (d) Energy storing flywheels, (e) Instruments in space and physics, (f) Non-contacting suspensions for micro-techniques, (g) Identification and test equipment in rotordynamics. This chapter illustrates the design, the modeling, the experimental tests and validation of all the subsystems of a rotors on a five-axes active magnetic suspension. The mechanical, electrical, electronic and control strategies aspects are explained with a mechatronic approach evaluating all the interactions between them. The main goals of the manuscript are: • Illustrate the design and the modeling phases of a five-axes active magnetic suspension; • Discuss the design steps and the practical implementation of a standard suspension control strategy; • Introduce an off-line technique of electrical centering of the actuators; • Illustrate the design steps and the practical implementation of an online rotor selfcentering control technique. The experimental test rig is a shaft (Weight: 5.3 kg. Length: 0.5 m) supported by two radial and one axial cylindrical active magnetic bearings and powered by an asynchronous high frequency electric motor. The chapter starts on an overview of the most common technologies used to support rotors with a deep analysis of their advantages and drawbacks with respect to active magnetic bearings. Furthermore a discussion on magnetic suspensions state of the art is carried out highlighting the research efforts directions and the goals reached in the last years. In the central sections, a detailed description of each subsystem is performed along with the modeling steps. In particular the rotor is modeled with a FE code while the actuators are considered in a linearized model. The last sections of the chapter are focused on the control strategies design and the experimental tests. An off-line technique of actuators electrical centering is explained and its advantages are described in the control design context. This strategy can be summarized as follows. Knowing that: a) each actuation axis is composed by two electromagnets; b) each electromagnet needs a current closed-loop control; c) the bandwidth of this control is depending on the mechanical airgap, then the technique allows to obtain the same value of the closed-loop bandwidth of the current control of both the electromagnets of the same actuation axis. This approach improves performance and gives more steadiness to the control behavior. The decentralized approach of the control strategy allowing the full suspensions on five axes is illustrated from the design steps to the practical implementation on the control unit. Furthermore a selfcentering technique is described and implemented on the experimental test rig: this technique uses a mobile notch filter synchronous with the rotational speed and allows the rotor to spin around its mass center. The actuators are not forced to counteract the unbalance excitation avoiding saturations. Finally, the experimental tests are carried out on the rotor to validate the suspension control, the off-line electrical centering and the selfcentering technique. The numerical and experimental results are superimposed and compared to prove the effectiveness of the modeling approach.

Rotors on Active Magnetic Bearings: Modeling and Control Techniques / Tonoli A.; Bonfitto A.; Silvagni M.; Suarez L.D.. - STAMPA. - (2012), pp. 1-27. [10.5772/3421]

Rotors on Active Magnetic Bearings: Modeling and Control Techniques

TONOLI, Andrea;BONFITTO, ANGELO;SILVAGNI, Mario;SUAREZ CABRERA, LESTER DANIEL
2012

Abstract

In the last decades the deeper and more detailed understanding of rotating machinery dynamic behavior facilitated the study and the design of several devices aiming at friction reduction, vibration damping and control, rotational speed increase and mechanical design optimization. Among these devices a promising technology is represented by active magnetic actuators which found a great spread in rotordynamics and in high precision applications due to (a) the absence of all fatigue and tribology issues motivated by the absence of contact, (b) the small sensitivity to the operating conditions, (c) the wide possibility of tuning even during operation, (d) the predictability of the behavior. This technology can be classified as a typical mechatronic product due to its nature which involves mechanical, electrical and control aspects, merging them in a single system. The attractive potential of active magnetic suspensions motivated a considerable research effort for the past decade focused mostly on electrical actuation subsystem and control strategies. Examples of application areas are: (a) Turbomachinery, (b) Vibration isolation, (c) Machine tools and electric drives, (d) Energy storing flywheels, (e) Instruments in space and physics, (f) Non-contacting suspensions for micro-techniques, (g) Identification and test equipment in rotordynamics. This chapter illustrates the design, the modeling, the experimental tests and validation of all the subsystems of a rotors on a five-axes active magnetic suspension. The mechanical, electrical, electronic and control strategies aspects are explained with a mechatronic approach evaluating all the interactions between them. The main goals of the manuscript are: • Illustrate the design and the modeling phases of a five-axes active magnetic suspension; • Discuss the design steps and the practical implementation of a standard suspension control strategy; • Introduce an off-line technique of electrical centering of the actuators; • Illustrate the design steps and the practical implementation of an online rotor selfcentering control technique. The experimental test rig is a shaft (Weight: 5.3 kg. Length: 0.5 m) supported by two radial and one axial cylindrical active magnetic bearings and powered by an asynchronous high frequency electric motor. The chapter starts on an overview of the most common technologies used to support rotors with a deep analysis of their advantages and drawbacks with respect to active magnetic bearings. Furthermore a discussion on magnetic suspensions state of the art is carried out highlighting the research efforts directions and the goals reached in the last years. In the central sections, a detailed description of each subsystem is performed along with the modeling steps. In particular the rotor is modeled with a FE code while the actuators are considered in a linearized model. The last sections of the chapter are focused on the control strategies design and the experimental tests. An off-line technique of actuators electrical centering is explained and its advantages are described in the control design context. This strategy can be summarized as follows. Knowing that: a) each actuation axis is composed by two electromagnets; b) each electromagnet needs a current closed-loop control; c) the bandwidth of this control is depending on the mechanical airgap, then the technique allows to obtain the same value of the closed-loop bandwidth of the current control of both the electromagnets of the same actuation axis. This approach improves performance and gives more steadiness to the control behavior. The decentralized approach of the control strategy allowing the full suspensions on five axes is illustrated from the design steps to the practical implementation on the control unit. Furthermore a selfcentering technique is described and implemented on the experimental test rig: this technique uses a mobile notch filter synchronous with the rotational speed and allows the rotor to spin around its mass center. The actuators are not forced to counteract the unbalance excitation avoiding saturations. Finally, the experimental tests are carried out on the rotor to validate the suspension control, the off-line electrical centering and the selfcentering technique. The numerical and experimental results are superimposed and compared to prove the effectiveness of the modeling approach.
9789535108450
Advances in Vibration Engineering and Structural Dynamics
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11583/2505625
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