This PhD thesis is concerned with the investigation of Extended Hubbard Models on one-dimensional lattices (chains); the approach used to such investigation is that of determining exact results. The extended Hubbard models are models of correlated electrons on lattices; they are the extensions of a model proposed by Hubbard in \cite{HUB} to explain the metal-insulator transition in $d$-transition compounds as the effect of electronic correlations, usually neglected in band theories. Later on, a need for extensions of such model was first felt within the context of high-temperature superconductivity; indeed, the different behaviour of doped cuprates with respect to conventional superconductors suggested that a microscopic theory of this phenomenon could be formulated in terms of electron-electron interaction, without explicitly invoking the phonon coupling, like in BCS theory. Although an exhaustive microscopic formulation for cuprate superconductivity has not been achieved yet, the Extended Hubbard Models have been in the meanwhile applied to other problems in condensed matter; they are actually considered the reference paradigm for treating all those systems in which electronic correlations cannot be neglected. \\As observed above, this thesis focuses in particular on 1-D chains: indeed in last years the progress in technological synthesization and small-scale observations has shown that there are many classes of materials exhibiting a strong one-dimensional character, such as organic (super)conductors, linear-chain polymers, quantum wires, quantum-dot chains, one-dimensional cuprates. Many experimental results confirm that such materials exhibit a quite rich behaviour, with different phases, charge-spin separation, as well as a strong electronic correlations. However, a sufficient understanding of these phenomena on a theoretical point of view has not been reached yet. This is due to the fact the usual theoretical methods can be shown to fail in D=1, and theoreticians are thus forced to develop new schemes for approaching the problem of many interacting fermions in such dimension. The latter therefore represents a fascinating challenge. Some progress has been made and many aspects are nowadays more clear; nevertheless, due to the lack of traditional techniques, the need for a comparison with exact results is perhaps more urgent in D=1 than in higher dimensions. The aim of this thesis is to provide some results to the research in this field. The present work is organized as follows: the two first chapters are introductory, while chapters 3 and 4 mostly contain the author's original contribution. More explicitly, {\bf chapter 1} is an introduction to the Hubbard models (both the ordinary and the Extended) and is meant for the reader who is non-familiar with these models. We tried to emphasize the motivation that historically led to their introduction and the physical contexts in which they are applied, not necessarily in one-dimension. \\{\bf Chapter 2} is instead devoted to general problematics of one dimensional physics. We have tried to stress that there is a number of physically interesting materials that can be regarded as actual 1-D systems; we give a brief account of the difficulties leading the usual theoretical approaches, such as mean-field and Fermi Liquid, to fail in D=1. While briefly describing the important results of the proposed alternative formulations (Luttinger Liquid, Renormalization Group), we also point out the points that are still unsatisfactory, and emphasize the importance that exactly integrable models have in this field. \\Matching the subjects of chapter 1 and 2, the subsequent ones contain the results of our investigation of exactly solvable Extended Hubbard model on 1-D chains. \\We wish to emphasize to the reader non familiar with integrable systems that the literature on this subject is often strongly concerned with the mathematical aspects of the involved methods, leaving the determination of the physical features of the derived integrable models as a secondary issue. On the contrary, we believe that both aspects of the research deserve a relevant role in the study. For these reasons, while chapter 3 contains new results about the general formulation of integrability for fermionic systems, chapter 4 is devoted to the investigation of the physical features for some models whose integrability has been proved in the previous chapter. \\More explicitly, in {\bf chapter 3} (apart from a preliminary introduction of sec.3.1) the theory of integrable {\it fermionic} systems has been developed within the frame of the Quantum Inverse Scattering Method (QISM). The latter is a technique for obtaining integrable models, traditionally formulated with success for spin systems; its more recent application to electron systems was leaving many unsatisfactory aspects. To overcome this weaknesses, in sec.3.2 we both clarify the theory of matrix representation for fermionic operators, and describe a method for obtaining integrable models of fermions (straightforwardly readable in terms of fermion operators), starting from the the solutions of a $\mathbb{C}$-number equation (known as Yang-Baxter Equation). In sec.3.3 we first work out a general method of search for solutions of such equation; secondly we explicitly find 96 solutions, corresponding to 96 integrable Extended Hubbard models (most of which are new) for which a set of mutually commuting operators is proved to exist. In sec.3.4 we formulate a general theorem concerning the symmetries of the integrable models in QISM, and widely discuss the symmetries and supersymmetries for the class of extended Hubbard Models.\\ {\bf Chapter 4} is devoted to the investigation of the physical properties of the integrable Extended Hubbard models found in chapter 3. We introduce a technique, called Sutherland's species technique, that, when applicable, yields an effective reduction of the Hilbert space and considerably simplifies the problem of diagonalizing the Hamiltonian. In fact, such technique is proved to be applicable to all the 96 models found above, and is used to determine the exact ground state phase diagram and the thermodynamics of the models. In particular we both recover in a quite straightforward way the phase diagram of a known model, and that of two new models (Model 2 and Model 3) that were not known before. \\The phase diagram exhibit structured forms with respect to the filling (density of electrons) and the on-site Coulomb repulsion ($U$); the pressure and the compressibility in the ground state are also calculated. Model 2 exhibits a superconducting phase particularly enhanced towards positive values of $U$, as well as a band-controlled insulator-superconductor transition at half filling; model 3 is the first example of exactly solved model with an asymmetric shape with respect to half-filling, due to the absence of particle-hole invariance of the Hamiltonian; a filling controlled metal-insulator transition is found to occur for this model. Generalizations to the other cases are also discussed. \\As to the thermodynamics, we compute the exact partition function of Model 3, which we believe to be particular worth of interest due to the above asymmetry. We then derive the exact specific heat of the model as a function of the temperature, which exhibits an interesting two-peak behaviour as well as a nearly universal crossing point. These results are discussed and compared with similar ones present in the literature. The chapters are of course linked each to another according to the above scheme; nevertheless, it has been a purpose of the author to make them as independently readable as possible. In particular, the reader who is more interested in the physical aspects of the models rather than in the general formalism of fermionic QISM can skip chapter 3 (at least in a first-sight reading) and pass directly to chapter 4; apart from some references to previous formulas the understanding should not be affected.\\{\it \noindent \underline{Notational Remark:}} The customary symbol to denote the electron filling is $n$; this has in fact been used throughout the two first introductory chapters. Nevertheless, in order to avoid possible misunderstanding with other extensive quantities, in chapter 3~and~4~the~symbol~has been changed into $\rho$.

Titolo: | Exact Results on Extended Hubbard Models on One-Dimensional Chains |

Autori: | |

Data di pubblicazione: | 2001 |

Abstract: | This PhD thesis is concerned with the investigation of Extended Hubbard Models on one-dimensional... lattices (chains); the approach used to such investigation is that of determining exact results. The extended Hubbard models are models of correlated electrons on lattices; they are the extensions of a model proposed by Hubbard in \cite{HUB} to explain the metal-insulator transition in $d$-transition compounds as the effect of electronic correlations, usually neglected in band theories. Later on, a need for extensions of such model was first felt within the context of high-temperature superconductivity; indeed, the different behaviour of doped cuprates with respect to conventional superconductors suggested that a microscopic theory of this phenomenon could be formulated in terms of electron-electron interaction, without explicitly invoking the phonon coupling, like in BCS theory. Although an exhaustive microscopic formulation for cuprate superconductivity has not been achieved yet, the Extended Hubbard Models have been in the meanwhile applied to other problems in condensed matter; they are actually considered the reference paradigm for treating all those systems in which electronic correlations cannot be neglected. \\As observed above, this thesis focuses in particular on 1-D chains: indeed in last years the progress in technological synthesization and small-scale observations has shown that there are many classes of materials exhibiting a strong one-dimensional character, such as organic (super)conductors, linear-chain polymers, quantum wires, quantum-dot chains, one-dimensional cuprates. Many experimental results confirm that such materials exhibit a quite rich behaviour, with different phases, charge-spin separation, as well as a strong electronic correlations. However, a sufficient understanding of these phenomena on a theoretical point of view has not been reached yet. This is due to the fact the usual theoretical methods can be shown to fail in D=1, and theoreticians are thus forced to develop new schemes for approaching the problem of many interacting fermions in such dimension. The latter therefore represents a fascinating challenge. Some progress has been made and many aspects are nowadays more clear; nevertheless, due to the lack of traditional techniques, the need for a comparison with exact results is perhaps more urgent in D=1 than in higher dimensions. The aim of this thesis is to provide some results to the research in this field. The present work is organized as follows: the two first chapters are introductory, while chapters 3 and 4 mostly contain the author's original contribution. More explicitly, {\bf chapter 1} is an introduction to the Hubbard models (both the ordinary and the Extended) and is meant for the reader who is non-familiar with these models. We tried to emphasize the motivation that historically led to their introduction and the physical contexts in which they are applied, not necessarily in one-dimension. \\{\bf Chapter 2} is instead devoted to general problematics of one dimensional physics. We have tried to stress that there is a number of physically interesting materials that can be regarded as actual 1-D systems; we give a brief account of the difficulties leading the usual theoretical approaches, such as mean-field and Fermi Liquid, to fail in D=1. While briefly describing the important results of the proposed alternative formulations (Luttinger Liquid, Renormalization Group), we also point out the points that are still unsatisfactory, and emphasize the importance that exactly integrable models have in this field. \\Matching the subjects of chapter 1 and 2, the subsequent ones contain the results of our investigation of exactly solvable Extended Hubbard model on 1-D chains. \\We wish to emphasize to the reader non familiar with integrable systems that the literature on this subject is often strongly concerned with the mathematical aspects of the involved methods, leaving the determination of the physical features of the derived integrable models as a secondary issue. On the contrary, we believe that both aspects of the research deserve a relevant role in the study. For these reasons, while chapter 3 contains new results about the general formulation of integrability for fermionic systems, chapter 4 is devoted to the investigation of the physical features for some models whose integrability has been proved in the previous chapter. \\More explicitly, in {\bf chapter 3} (apart from a preliminary introduction of sec.3.1) the theory of integrable {\it fermionic} systems has been developed within the frame of the Quantum Inverse Scattering Method (QISM). The latter is a technique for obtaining integrable models, traditionally formulated with success for spin systems; its more recent application to electron systems was leaving many unsatisfactory aspects. To overcome this weaknesses, in sec.3.2 we both clarify the theory of matrix representation for fermionic operators, and describe a method for obtaining integrable models of fermions (straightforwardly readable in terms of fermion operators), starting from the the solutions of a $\mathbb{C}$-number equation (known as Yang-Baxter Equation). In sec.3.3 we first work out a general method of search for solutions of such equation; secondly we explicitly find 96 solutions, corresponding to 96 integrable Extended Hubbard models (most of which are new) for which a set of mutually commuting operators is proved to exist. In sec.3.4 we formulate a general theorem concerning the symmetries of the integrable models in QISM, and widely discuss the symmetries and supersymmetries for the class of extended Hubbard Models.\\ {\bf Chapter 4} is devoted to the investigation of the physical properties of the integrable Extended Hubbard models found in chapter 3. We introduce a technique, called Sutherland's species technique, that, when applicable, yields an effective reduction of the Hilbert space and considerably simplifies the problem of diagonalizing the Hamiltonian. In fact, such technique is proved to be applicable to all the 96 models found above, and is used to determine the exact ground state phase diagram and the thermodynamics of the models. In particular we both recover in a quite straightforward way the phase diagram of a known model, and that of two new models (Model 2 and Model 3) that were not known before. \\The phase diagram exhibit structured forms with respect to the filling (density of electrons) and the on-site Coulomb repulsion ($U$); the pressure and the compressibility in the ground state are also calculated. Model 2 exhibits a superconducting phase particularly enhanced towards positive values of $U$, as well as a band-controlled insulator-superconductor transition at half filling; model 3 is the first example of exactly solved model with an asymmetric shape with respect to half-filling, due to the absence of particle-hole invariance of the Hamiltonian; a filling controlled metal-insulator transition is found to occur for this model. Generalizations to the other cases are also discussed. \\As to the thermodynamics, we compute the exact partition function of Model 3, which we believe to be particular worth of interest due to the above asymmetry. We then derive the exact specific heat of the model as a function of the temperature, which exhibits an interesting two-peak behaviour as well as a nearly universal crossing point. These results are discussed and compared with similar ones present in the literature. The chapters are of course linked each to another according to the above scheme; nevertheless, it has been a purpose of the author to make them as independently readable as possible. In particular, the reader who is more interested in the physical aspects of the models rather than in the general formalism of fermionic QISM can skip chapter 3 (at least in a first-sight reading) and pass directly to chapter 4; apart from some references to previous formulas the understanding should not be affected.\\{\it \noindent \underline{Notational Remark:}} The customary symbol to denote the electron filling is $n$; this has in fact been used throughout the two first introductory chapters. Nevertheless, in order to avoid possible misunderstanding with other extensive quantities, in chapter 3~and~4~the~symbol~has been changed into $\rho$. |

Appare nelle tipologie: | 8.1 Doctoral thesis Polito |

###### File in questo prodotto:

`http://hdl.handle.net/11583/2498347`