The thesis aims to investigate and develop innovative tools to provide autonomous flight capability to a fixed-wing unmanned aircraft. Particularly it contributes to research on path optimization, tra jectory tracking and collision avoidance with two algorithms designed respectively for path planning and navigation. The complete system generates the shortest path from start to target avoiding known obstacles represented on a map, then drives the aircraft to track the optimum path avoiding unpredicted ob jects sensed in flight. The path planning algorithm, named Kinematic A*, is developed on the basis of graph search algorithms like A* or Theta* and is meant to bridge the gap between path-search logics of these methods and aircraft kinematic constraints. On the other hand the navigation algorithm faces concurring tasks of tra jectory tracking and collision avoidance with Nonlinear Model Predictive Control. When A* is applied to path planning of unmanned aircrafts any aircraft kinematics is taken into account, then practicability of the path is not guaranteed. Kinematic A* (KA*) generates feasible paths through graph-search logics and basic vehicle characteristics. It includes a simple aircraft kinematic-model to evaluate moving cost between nodes of tridimensional graphs. Movements are constrained with minimum turning radius and maximum rate of climb. Furtermore, separation from obstacles is imposed, defining a volume around the path free from obstacles (tube-type boundaries). Navigation is safe when the tracking error does not exceed this volume. The path-tracking task aims to link kinematic information related to desired aircraft positions with dynamic behaviors to generate commands that minimize the error between reference and real tra jectory. On the other hand avoid obstacles in flight is one of the most challenging tasks for autonomous aircrafts and many elements must be taken into account in order to implement an effective collision avoidance maneuver. Second part of the thesis describes a Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) application to cope with collision avoidance and path tracking tasks. First contribution is the development of a navigation system able to match concurring problems: track the optimal path provided with KA* and avoid unpredicted obstacles detected with sensors. Second Contribution is the Sense & Avoid (S&A) technique exploiting spherical camera and visual servoing control logics.

Advanced Path Planning and Collision Avoidance Algorithms for UAVs / DE FILIPPIS, Luca. - (2012). [10.6092/polito/porto/2497102]

Advanced Path Planning and Collision Avoidance Algorithms for UAVs

DE FILIPPIS, LUCA
2012

Abstract

The thesis aims to investigate and develop innovative tools to provide autonomous flight capability to a fixed-wing unmanned aircraft. Particularly it contributes to research on path optimization, tra jectory tracking and collision avoidance with two algorithms designed respectively for path planning and navigation. The complete system generates the shortest path from start to target avoiding known obstacles represented on a map, then drives the aircraft to track the optimum path avoiding unpredicted ob jects sensed in flight. The path planning algorithm, named Kinematic A*, is developed on the basis of graph search algorithms like A* or Theta* and is meant to bridge the gap between path-search logics of these methods and aircraft kinematic constraints. On the other hand the navigation algorithm faces concurring tasks of tra jectory tracking and collision avoidance with Nonlinear Model Predictive Control. When A* is applied to path planning of unmanned aircrafts any aircraft kinematics is taken into account, then practicability of the path is not guaranteed. Kinematic A* (KA*) generates feasible paths through graph-search logics and basic vehicle characteristics. It includes a simple aircraft kinematic-model to evaluate moving cost between nodes of tridimensional graphs. Movements are constrained with minimum turning radius and maximum rate of climb. Furtermore, separation from obstacles is imposed, defining a volume around the path free from obstacles (tube-type boundaries). Navigation is safe when the tracking error does not exceed this volume. The path-tracking task aims to link kinematic information related to desired aircraft positions with dynamic behaviors to generate commands that minimize the error between reference and real tra jectory. On the other hand avoid obstacles in flight is one of the most challenging tasks for autonomous aircrafts and many elements must be taken into account in order to implement an effective collision avoidance maneuver. Second part of the thesis describes a Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) application to cope with collision avoidance and path tracking tasks. First contribution is the development of a navigation system able to match concurring problems: track the optimal path provided with KA* and avoid unpredicted obstacles detected with sensors. Second Contribution is the Sense & Avoid (S&A) technique exploiting spherical camera and visual servoing control logics.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11583/2497102
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